Classic Works of Apologetics - Seeds of American Freedom Classic Works of Apologetics Online

America's Christian Heritage
Seeds of American Freedom

Who inspired the framers of the Declaration of Independence and the U.S. Constitution? Who do the framers say inspired them? The documentation is presented here.

Further information can be found at

Historical Overview

  • Adams, John, 1735-1826. Mr. Adams's Letter to the Abbe de Mably, &c. Quincy, September 14, 1816. The North American Review and Miscellaneous Journal (1815-1821). Boston: Nov 1816. Vol. VOLUME FOURTH., Iss. No. X.; p. 48 (10 pp.) Also published in The Works of John Adams, Second President of the United States ..., Volume 5, 1865 edition. Text-searchable here.

  • Adams, John, 1735-1826. The 'American Revolution', Letter to Hezekiah Niles, first editor of the National Register. Quincy, February 13, 1818. First published in Niles' Weekly Register, v. 2, n. 14, March 7, 1818.

    Later published as Revolutionary Reminiscences in Niles' National Register, containing political, historical, geographical, scientifical, statistical, economical, and biographical documents, essays and facts : together with notices of the arts and manufactures, and a record of the events of the times, August 6, 1842. Online as Niles' Weekly Register, Volume 62. Also here.

  • Backus, Isaac, 1724-1806. A History of New-England, with particular reference to the denomination of Christians called Baptists. Containing the first principles and settlements of the country; the rise and increase of the Baptist churches therein; the intrusion of arbitrary power under the cloak of religion; the Christian testimonies of the Baptists and others against the same, with their sufferings under it, from the begining [sic] to the present time. Collected from most authentic records and writings, both ancient and modern. By Isaac Backus, Pastor of the First Baptist Church in Middleborough. [Four lines of quotations]. Vol. 1 of 3. Boston, 1777[-1796]. 575 pp.

  • Backus, Isaac, 1724-1806. A Church history of New-England, with particular reference to the denomination of Christians called Baptists. Containing the first principles and settlements of the country; the rise and increase of the Baptist churches therein; the intrusion of arbitrary power under the cloak of religion; the Christian testimonies of the Baptists and others against the same, with their sufferings under it, from the begining [sic] to the present time. Collected from most authentic records and writings, both ancient and modern. By Isaac Backus, Pastor of the First Baptist Church in Middleborough. [Four lines of quotations]. Vol. 2 of 3. Extending from 1690, to 1784. Boston, 1777[-1796]. 447 pp.

  • Backus, Isaac, 1724-1806. A Church history of New-England. Extending from 1783 to 1796. Vol. III. By Isaac Backus, Boston [Mass.], 1796. 336 pp. Vol. 3 of 3.
  • Baldwin, Chuck, 1952-present. Resurrecting the Black Regiment. Posted September 4, 2009.

  • Bancroft, George, 1800-1891. History of the United States : from the discovery of the American continent. Boston, 1864-1875. Contents: v. 1-3. History of the colonization of the United States.--v. 4-10. The American revolution.
  • Bardon, Dr. Jonathan, fl. 21st century. A Narrow Sea--Episode 41: ?An Irish-Scotch Presbyterian Rebellion. Ulster-Scots. BBC.

  • Barton, David, 1954-present. What is the Black Robe Regiment?

  • Barton, David, 1954-present. Original Black Robe Regiment: A Brief History

  • Barton, David, 1954-present. The American Revolution: Was it an Act of Biblical Rebellion? Posted May 2009. "The topic of civil disobedience and resistance to governing authorities had been a subject of serious theological inquiries for centuries before the Enlightenment. This was especially true during the Reformation, when the subject was directly addressed by theologians such as Frenchman John Calvin, German Martin Luther, Swiss Reformation leader Huldreich Zwingli, and numerous others."

    ... "The second Scriptural viewpoint overwhelmingly embraced by most Americans during the Revolutionary Era was that God would not honor an offensive war, but that He did permit civil self-defense (e.g., Nehemiah 4:13-14 & 20-21, Zechariah 9:8, 2 Samuel 10:12, etc.). The fact that the American Revolution was an act of self-defense and was not an offensive war undertaken by the Americans remained a point of frequent spiritual appeal for the Founding Fathers."

  • Barton, David, 1954-present. The Founders as Christians.

  • Barton, David, 1954-present. The Founders and Public Religious Expressions.

  • Barton, David, 1954-present. The Founders on Public Religious Expression.

  • Barton, David, 1954-present. The Founding Fathers on Jesus, Christianity and the Bible.

  • Barton, David, 1954-present. Importance of Morality and Religion in Government.

  • Butler, Frederick, 1766-1843. History of the United States: from the discovery of the American continent. Hartford [Conn.] : Printed for the author, (Roberts and Burr), 1821. Volume 1 of 3. Also here. Engr. front. in v. 1 includes portraits of Washington, Adams, Jefferson, Madison, and Monroe
    Volume 2 of 3. Also here. Errors in paging: v. 2, p. 142, 205, 253, 398 misnumbered 122, 105, 353, 396.
    Volume 3 of 3. Also here.
  • Chalmers, George, 1742-1825. Political annals of the present united colonies, from their settlement to the peace of 1763 compiled chiefly from records, and authorised often by the insertion of state-papers . London: Printed for the author: And sold by J. Bowen, 1780. 5 p. leaves, 695 pp.

  • Chalmers, George, 1742-1825. Political annals of the present united colonies, from their settlement to the peace of 1763 compiled chiefly from records, and authorised often by the insertion of state-papers. New York: New York Historical Society, 1868. pp.[1]-176 25 cm. Book II, covering the period from 1688 to about the close of the 17th century, here first published from the original manuscript in possession of the New York Historical Society. 1868. Book I published in London in 1780. cf. Prefatory note./ Bound with v.1.

  • Chalmers, George, 1742-1825. An Introduction to the History of the Revolt of the American Colonies: being a comprehensive view of its origin, derived from the state papers contained in the public offices of Great Britain, Volume 1. . J. Munroe, 1845.

  • Curtis, George Ticknor, 1812-1894. History of the Origin, Formation, and Adoption of the Constitution of the United States: with notices of its principal framers. New York: Harper and Bros., 1854-1858. Volume 1 of 2. 546 pp. Volume 2 of 2. 674 pp.

  • Dorchester, Daniel, 1827-1907. Christianity in the United States from the first settlement down to the present time. New York: Hunt & Eaton; Cincinnati: Cranston & Stowe, 1890. 799 pp.: incl. tables. front. (port.) 3 maps (2 double) 2 double col. charts, xi diagr. I. The colonial era -- II. The national era: Period I. From 1776 to 1800. Period II. From 1800 to 1850. Period III. From 1850 to 1894.

  • Dreisbach, Daniel L. A Godless Constitution?: A Response to Kramnick and Moore. 1997.

  • Farish, Leah. The Religious Roots of the Constitution Responding to Protections and Applications of the First Amendment Today. Posted September 23, 2014.
  • Galloway, Charles Betts, 1849-1909. Christianity and the American commonwealth, or, The influence of Christianity in making this nation. Nashville, Tenn.: Pub. House, Methodist Episcopal Church, South, 1898. 213 pp.; 19 cm. "Delivered in the chapel at Emory College, Oxford, Ga., March 1898."

  • Goswick, James J. The Christian Foundation of Republican Government. Our Founding Truth. Posted October 6, 2007.

  • Goswick, James J. The First Amendment: A Christian Document on American Creation. Our Founding Truth. Posted January 10, 2011.

  • Headley, Joel Tyler, 1813-1897. The Chaplains and clergy of the revolution. C. Scribner, 1864, 402 pp.

  • Makovi, Michael. The First Amendment: A Christian Document. American Creation. Posted January 6, 2011.

  • Massachusetts Historical Society, 1791 to present. The Coming of the American Revolution.

  • Mather, Cotton, 1663-1728. Magnalia Christi Americana, or, The Ecclesiastical History of New-England, from its first planting in the year 1620, unto the year of Our Lord. 1st American ed. / from the London edition of 1702. Volume 1 of 2. Hartford, 1820. 568 pp.

  • Mather, Cotton, 1663-1728. Magnalia Christi Americana, or, The Ecclesiastical History of New-England, from its first planting in the year 1620, unto the year of Our Lord. 1st American edition / from the London edition of 1702. Volume 2 of 2. Hartford, 1820. 589 pp. Also 1853 edition. S. Andrus & son, 1853.

  • Morris, Benjamin Franklin, 1810-1867. Christian Life and Character of the Civil Institutions of the United States. Philadelphia: George W. Childs; Cincinnati: Rickey & Carroll, 1864. 831 pp.; 23 cm. Also here and here.

    "In all their previous state papers[, t]he men who formed the Constitution had declared Christianity to be 'fundamental to the well-being of society and government, and in every form of official authority had stated this fact. ... The various States who had sent these good and great men to the convention to form a Constitution had, in all their civil charters, expressed, as States and as a people, their faith in God and the Christian religion."

  • Morse, Jedidiah, 1761-1826. The History of America, in two books. Containing, I. A general history of America. II. A concise history of the late Revolution. The second edition. Philadelphia, 1795. 370 pp.

  • Morse, Jedidiah, 1761-1826. A Sermon, preached at Charlestown, November 29, 1798, on the anniversary thanksgiving in Massachusetts. With an appendix, designed to illustrate some parts of the discourse; exhibiting proofs of the early existence, progress, and deleterious effects of French intrigue and influence in the United States.. Boston, December, 1798-February, 1799.

  • Morse, Jedidiah, 1761-1826. An Address, to the students at Phillips Academy, in Andover, delivered July 9, 1799, being the day of the anniversary exhibition. Charlestown Mass., 1799. 14 pp.

  • Morse, Jedidiah, 1761-1826. Annals of the American revolution, or, A record of the causes and events which produced, and terminated in the establishment and independence of the American Republic. Hartford, 1824. 456 pp. Also here.

  • Niles, Hezekiah, 1777-1839. Principles and acts of the Revolution in America: or, An attempt to collect and preserve some of the speeches, orations, & proceedings, with sketches and remarks on men and things, and other fugitive or neglected pieces, belonging to the men of the revolutionary period in the United States. Baltimore, 1822. 503 pp. Also here, here, and here.

  • Oliver, Peter, 1713-1791. Chief Justice of the Massachusetts Colony in the early 1770s and British Loyalist. Origin & progress of the American Rebellion: A Tory view. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1961. xx, 175 pp.: ports.; 24 cm. Also here. Oliver mentions "The Black Regiment," the clergymen who encouraged the rebellion.

    "Mr. Otis, ye. Son, understanding the Foibles of human Nature, although he did not always practise upon that Theory, advanced one shrewd Position, which seldom fails to promote popular Commotions, vizt. that it was necessary to secure the black Regiment, these were his Words, & his Meaning was to engage ye. dissenting Clergy on his Side. He had laid it down as a Maxim, in nomine Domini incipit omne malum; & where better could he fly for aid than to the Horns of the Altar? & this Order of Men might, in a literal Sense, be stiled such, for like their Predecessors of 1641 they have been unceasingly sounding the Yell of Rebellion in the Ears of an ignorant & deluded People."

    ... "It may not be amiss, now, to reconnoitre Mr. Otis's black Regiment, the dissenting Clergy, who took so active a Part in the Rebellion. 24

    24 The term "black regiment" was used in Oliver's article in the Boston Weekly News-Letter, Jan. 11, 1776. It was used earlier by "Israelite" in the Boston Gazette, Dec. 7, 1772.

    "The congregational perswasion of Religion might be properly termed the established Religion of the Massachusetts, as well as of some other of the New England Colonies; as the Laws were peculiarly adapted to secure ye Rights of this Sect; although all other Religions were tolerated, except the Romish. This Sect inherited from their Ancestors an Aversion to Episcopacy; & I much question, had it not been for the Supremacy of the British Government over them, which they dared not openly deny, whether Episcopacy itself would have been tolerated; at least it would have been more discountenanced than it was & here I can not but remark a great Mistake of the Governors of the Church of England, in proposing to the Colonies to have their consent to a Bishops residing among them for the purpose of Ordination."

    ... "The Town of Boston being the Metropolis, it was also the Metropolis of Sedition; and hence it was that their Clergy being dependent on the People for their daily Bread; by having frequent Intercourse with the People, imbibed their Principles. 25

    25"Freeman" in the Censor for Jan. 4, 1772, p. 25, observed that the Boston clergy 'have temporised, against their own judgments, in compliance with the prejudices of their people!'

    "In this Town was an annual Convention of the Clergy of the Province, the Day after the Election of his Majestys Charter Council; and at those Meetings were settled the religious Affairs of the Province; & as the Boston Clergy were esteemed by the others as an Order of Deities, so they were greatly influenced by them. There was also another annual Meeting of the Clergy at Cambridge, on the Commencement for graduating the Scholars of Harvard College, at these two Conventions, if much Good was effectuated, so there was much Evil. And some of the Boston Clergy, as they were capable of the Latter, so they missed no Opportunities of accomplishing their Purposes. Among those who were most distinguished of the Boston Clergy were Dr. Charles Chauncy, Dr. Jonathan Mayhew & Dr. Samuel Cooper. 26 & they distinguished theirselves in encouraging Seditions & Riots, untill those lesser Offences were absorbed in Rebellion. 27

    26 Other members of the "black regiment" were Jonas Clark, of Lexington, whose wife was Hancock's cousin; Andrew Eliot, who was a correspondent of Thomas Hollis; John Lathrop, of Old North Church; and Samuel Cooke, of Arlington, who was a good friend of Jonas Clark and John Cleaveland.

    27 Samuel Cooper and his successor were accused of "sowing sedition and conspiracy among parishioners" a practice that had gone on ever since the cornerstone of the church was laid. See Alice M. Baldwin, The New England Clergy and the American Revolution (Durham, N.C., 1928), p. 94, n. 34.

  • Palfrey, John Gorham, 1796-1881. A History of New England, from the discovery by Europeans to the revolution of the seventeenth century: being an abridgment of his "History of New England during the Stuart dynasty." New York: Hurd and Houghton, 1866.
  • Pennell, Arthur J., Fl. early 20th century. American Foundations. Homiletic review, volume 82, New Haven, Conn. 1921.

  • Pitkin, Timothy, 1766-1847. A Political and Civil History of the United States of America: from the year 1763 to the close of the administration of President Washington, in March, 1797: including a summary view of the political and civil state of the North American colonies, prior to that period. H. Howe and Durrie & Peck, 1828. Volume 1 of 2. Volume 2 of 2.

  • Prince, Thomas, 1687-1758. The Christian History: containing accounts of the revival and propagation of religion in Great-Britain & America. Boston, N.E., 1743-1745. Volume 1 of 2. 423 pp. Volume 2 of 2. 422 pp.

  • Proud, Robert, 1728-1813. The History of Pennsylvania: in North America, from the original institution and settlement of that province, under the first proprietor and governor, William Penn, in 1681, till after the year 1742; with an introduction, respecting, the life of W. Penn, prior to the grant of the province, and the religious society of the people called Quakers;--with the first rise of the neighbouring colonies, more particularly of West-New-Jersey, and the settlement of the Dutch and Swedes on Delaware. To which is added, a brief description of the said province, and of the general state, in which it flourished, principally between the years 1760 and 1770. Printed and sold by Zachariah Poulson, junior, number eighty, Chesnut-street, 1797. I. Introduction. The history of Pennsylvania, 1676-1709.--II. The history of Pennsylvania, 1709-1763. A view of the province of Pennsylvania ... between the years 1760 and 1770. Extract from two short Latin poems ... by Thomas Makin. Appendix.

  • Sandoz, Ellis, Fl. 20th century, editor. Political Sermons of the American Founding Era. Vol. 1 (1730-1788). Vol. 2 (1789-1805). 2 v. (1734 pp.); 22 cm.

  • Sedlak, Wayne C., Fl. early 21st century. The Black Regiment Led the Fight in Our War for Independence.

  • Thornton, John Wingate, 1818-1878. The Pulpit of the American revolution: or, The Political Sermons of the period of 1776 , With a historical introduction, notes, and illustrations. Gould and Lincoln, 1860. 537 pp.
  • Trumbull, Benjamin, 1735-1820. A General History of the United States of America from the discovery in 1492, to 1792, or, Sketches of the divine agency, in their settlement, growth, and protection; and especially in the late memorable revolution. In three volumes. Volume I. Exhibiting a general view of the principal events, from the discovery of North America, to the year 1765. / by Benjamin Trumbull. Boston: Farrand, Mallory, and co., 1810 ([Boston]: Samuel T. Armstrong) 467 pp.; 23 cm. Note: No more published./ "This first volume ... was published nine months since, during the absence of the friend, to whom the author entrusted his manuscripts. By an unfortunate mistake, it was published without the preface and the concluding chapter. In this imperfect state a number of copies have been sold ... The only method of correcting this regretted mistake is adopted, and the concluding chapter, with the preface are published, and will be added to all the copies, which remain unsold ..."--Note, p. xii. The manuscript collections from which this history is compiled are in the Yale library.

  • Trumbull, Benjamin, 1735-1820. A Complete History of Connecticut, Civil and Ecclesiastical: from the emigration of its first planters from England, in MDCXXX, to MDCCXIII. Hartford, 1797. 611 pp.
  • Tyler, Moses Coit, 1835-1900. The Literary History of the American Revolution, 1763-1783. G. P. Putnam's sons, 1897. Volume 1 of 2. Volume 2 of 2. Volumes 1-2.
    The plan of the author has been to let both parties in the controversy--the Whigs and the Tories, the Revolutionists and "the Loyalists--tell their own story freely in their own way, and without either of them being liable, at our hands, to posthumous outrage in the shape of partisan imputations on their sincerity, their magnanimity, their patriotism, or their courage. Moreover, for the purpose of historic interpretation, the author has recognized the value of the lighter, as well as of the graver, forms of literature, and consequently has here given full room to the lyrical, the humorous, and the satirical aspects of our Revolutionary record--its songs, ballads, sarcasms, its literary facetiae. The entire body of American writings, from 1763 to 1783, whether serious or mirthful, in prose or in verse, is here delineated in its most characteristic examples, for the purpose of exhibiting the several stages of thought and emotion through which the American people passed during the two decades of the struggle which resulted in our national Independence.
    By comparison, then, with the usual way of dealing with the subject, this study of the American Revolution brings about a somewhat different adjustment of its causal forces, of its instruments, its sequences, its acts, and its actors. The proceedings of legislative bodies, the doings of cabinet ministers and of colonial politicians, the movements of armies, are not here altogether disregarded, but they are here subordinated: they are mentioned, when mentioned at all, as mere external incidents in connection with the ideas and the emotions which lay back of them or in front of them, which caused them or were caused by them. One result of this method, also, is an entirely new distribution of the tokens of historic prominence--of what is called fame--among the various participants in that very considerable business. Instead of fixing our eyes almost exclusively, as is commonly done, upon statesmen and generals, upon party leaders, upon armies and navies, upon Congress, upon parliament, upon the ministerial agents of a brain-sick king, or even upon that brain-sick king himself, and instead of viewing all these people as the sole or the principal movers and doers of the things that made the American Revolution, we here for the most part turn our eyes away toward certain persons hitherto much neglected, in many cases wholly forgotten--toward persons who, as mere writers, and whether otherwise prominent or not, nourished the springs of great historic events by creating and shaping and directing public opinion during all that robust time; who, so far as we here regard them, wielded only spiritual weapons; who still illustrate, for us and for all who choose to see, the majestic operation of ideas, the creative and decisive play of spiritual forces, in the development of history, in the rise and fall of nations, in the aggregation and the division of races. Accordingly, in this particular history of the American Revolution, our heroes are such, not because they were mighty ministers of state, or mighty politicians and law-makers, or mighty generals; our heroes are such, chiefly, because they were mere penmen--only essayists, pamphleteers, sermon writers, song writers, tale tellers, or satirists, the study of whose work, it is believed, may open to us a view of the more delicate and elusive, but not less profound or less real, forces which made that period so great, and still so worthy of being truly understood by us. Finally, as we have here to do, not so much with the old, official, and conspicuous actors in the Revolution as, in many cases, with its unseen, its unofficial, and its almost unremembered ones,--as we here concern ourselves less frequently with the political and military chiefs of that stormy transaction, and more frequently with its literary chiefs,--so, also, are we here brought into a rather direct and familiar acquaintance with the American people themselves, on both sides of the dispute, as, sitting at their firesides or walking in their streets, they were actually stirred to thought and passion by the arrival of the daily budget of news touching an affair of incomparable moment to themselves. Just what this book aims to be, then, is a presentation of the soul, rather than of the body, of the American Revolution; a careful, independent, and, if possible, an unbiased register of the very brain and heart of the sorely divided people of the land, as these wrought, and rejoiced, and suffered, in the progress of those tremendous political and military events which constitute the exterior and visible framework of our heroic age. ...

  • Warren, Mercy Otis, 1728-1814. History of the Rise, Progress, and Termination of the American Revolution vol. 1.CHAPTER IV: Character of Mr. Hutchinson -- Appointed Governor of Massachusetts -- The attempted Assassination of Mr. Otis -- Transactions on the fifth of March, one thousand seven hundred and seventy -- Arrival of the East India Company's Tea-Ships.

    This gazette [Boston Gazette] was much celebrated for the freedom of its disquisitions in favor of civil liberty. It has been observed that it will be a treasury of political intelligence for the historians of this country. Otis, Thacher, Dexter, Adams, Warren and Quincy, Doctors Samuel Cooper and Mayhew, stars of the first magnitude in our northern hemisphere, whose glory and brightness distant ages will admire; these gentlemen of character and influence offered their first essays to the public through the medium of the Boston Gazette, on which account the paper became odious to the friends of prerogative, but not more disgusting to the tories and high church than it was pleasing to the whigs. See collection of the Massachusetts Historical Society. ["Continuation of the Narrative of Newspapers Published in New-England, from the Year 1704 to the Revolution." MHS, Collections, first series, VI (1799): 70.]

  • Wolford, Thorp L., 1918-2012. The Laws and Liberties of 1648; The First Code of Laws Enacted and Printed in English America. Boston University Law Review, 1948, pp. 427-463.

    The Seeds of Liberty

    Adams, John Quincy

    Sixth President of the United States. Read more about John Quincy Adams here, here and here.

    Adams, Samuel

    Congregationalist. Read about Samuel Adams here.


    Adams, Zabdiel

    Pastor. First cousin of John Adams, the second president of the United States.


    Backus, Isaac

    Baptist preacher. Delegate to the First Continental Congress. Founded Rhode Island College, later Brown University. Learn about Backus here.


    The Belfast News-letter
    (July 18, 1769 - September 1, 1962)

    Published in Belfast, Northern Ireland: James Henderson.


    Blackstone, Sir William

    English Jurist. Knighted in 1770. Read more about Blackstone here and here and here.


    Chauncy, Charles

    Pastor of the First Church of Boston. A precursor to the Unitarians. Great-grandson of Charles Chauncy (1592-1672), President of Harvard College. Read about both here.


    Clark, Jonas

    American clergyman. Pastor of the Church of Christ in Lexington, Massachusetts on May 19, 1755. Read about Clark here and here.


    Cleaveland, John

    American clergyman and author.


    Cooke, Samuel

    Pastor of the Second Church in Cambridge, Massachusetts.


    Coolidge, Calvin

    30th President of the United States. Read more about Coolidge here and here.


    Cooper, Samuel

    Pastor of Brattle Street Church in Boston. Read about Cooper here


    Davenport, John

    English puritan clergyman and co-founder of the American colony of New Haven. Read about Davenport here.


    Dexter, Samuel

    Clergyman. Read about Dexter here.


    Dickinson, John

    American lawyer and politician from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and Wilmington, Delaware. Read about Dickinson here.


    Ellis, Jonathan



    Fortenberry, Bill
    (fl. 21st Century)

    Author from Birmingham, Alabama.


    French, Jonathan

    Pastor at South Church, Andover, Massachusetts. Read about French here.


    Hooker, Richard

    Preacher. Read more about Hooker here.


    Hooker, Thomas

    Puritan clergyman in the American colonies, chief founder of Hartford, Conn. Author of the world's first written constitution. Read about Hooker here.


    Jay, John

    "Founding Father John Jay was appointed by President George Washington as the first Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court. Jay had a very distinguished history of public service. He was a member of the Continental Congress (1774-76, 1778-79) and served as President of Congress (1778-79); he helped write the New York State constitution (1777); he authored the first manual on military discipline (1777); he served as Chief-Justice of New York Supreme Court (1777-78); he was appointed minister to Spain (1779); he signed the final peace treaty with Great Britain (1783); and he was elected as Governor of New York (1795-1801). Jay is also famous as one of the three coauthors, along with James Madison and Alexander Hamilton, of the Federalist Papers, which were instrumental in securing the ratification of the federal Constitution. John Jay was a strong Christian, serving both as vice-president of the American Bible Society (1816-21) and its president (1821-27), and he was a member of American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions."--David Barton.
    Read about Jay here.


    Jellinek, Georg

    "German legal historian and theorist who wrote on human and civil rights, electoral law, and the rights of minorities in the late 19th century. His history of the French Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen shows the influence of the declarations of the individual colonies, such as Virginia, had on its formulation."-Online Library of Liberty. Read about Jellinek in The New International Encyclopædia, Volume 12 .


    Lathrop, John

    Congregationalist minister in Boston, Massachusetts. Read about Lathrop in Heralds of a Liberal Faith, Volume 1, edited by Samuel Atkins Eliot.


    Lathrop, Joseph

    Clergyman. Read about Lathrop here.


    Lidenius, John Abraham
    (Fl. 18th century)



    Locke, John

    English philosopher. Learn more about Locke here and from his entry in this list of scientists of Christian faith.


    Massachusetts Historical Society

    "When the Reverend Jeremy Belknap, a Boston minister, brought together nine acquaintances in a friend's parlor on January 24, 1791, his goal was to find a way to gather and protect the basic sources of American history. As he envisioned it, the historical society would become a repository and a publisher collecting, preserving, and disseminating resources for the study of American history. Through their pledges of family papers, books, and artifacts the founding members made the Society the nation's most important historical repository by the end of their initial meeting. With the appearance of their first title at the start of 1792, they also made the MHS the nation's first institution of any description to publish in its field."
    Read about the Massachusetts Historial Society here.


    Mitchel, Jonathan

    New England reverend. Read about Mitchel here.


    Montesquieu, Charles de Secondat, Baron de

    French writer, philosopher and publicist. Britannica Concise Encyclopedia: "His magnum opus, the enormous The Spirit of the Laws (1750), contained an original classification of governments by their manner of conducting policy, an argument for the separation of the legislative, judicial, and executive powers, and a celebrated but less influential theory of the political influence of climate. The work profoundly influenced European and American political thought and was relied on by the framers of the U.S. Constitution." Read more about Baron Montesquieu here, and here.


    Mayhew, Jonathan

    American minister at Old West Church, Boston, Massachusetts, the first Unitarian Congregational Church in New England. He is erroneously credited with coining the phrase "no taxation without representation." See John Joachim Zubly. Read more about Mayhew here.


    Moore, Frank
    (c. 1860)


    Nowell, Samuel

    Chaplain. Tutor, Fellow and Treasurer at Harvard. Read about Nowell in the Dictionary of National Biography, Volume 41, p. 250.


    Otis, James

    Patriot. Read more about Otis here, and here.


    Ponet, John

    Bishop of Winchester, the Bishop of Rochester, and Protestant religious leader. Read about Ponet in Biographia evangelica by Erasmus Middleton.


    Prescott, Robert

    General, and governor-in-chief of British North America. Read about Prescott here and Dictionary of American Biography, vol. 46, 1896, pg. 304.


    Quincy, Josiah II / "Hyperion"

    Attorney, "the Patriot", newspaper propagandist, son of Josiah Quincy I (1709-1784), Revolutionary War soldier, built Josiah Quincy House (1770). Read about Quincy here and here.
    Father of Josiah Quincy III (1772-1864), president of Harvard University (1829-1845), US representative (1805-1813), mayor of Boston (1823-1828).


    Ramsay, David

    American Congressman, physician and historian. OCLC Bio/History from David Ramsay Papers: David Ramsay was born April 2, 1749 in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. He graduated from the University of Pennsylvania where he was a friend and student of the physician Benjamin Rush. After practicing medicine in Maryland for one year, he moved to Charleston, South Carolina, where he immersed himself in local politics and society. He served as a member of the Charleston Council of Safety, member of the South Carolina legislature and Privy Council, Continental Congress, and United States Congress. Ramsay was an early member of the newly formed Medical Society of South Carolina and was elected president in 1798. He was an early advocate for the creation of a Medical College of South Carolina in Charleston. He authored numerous works on medicine and history, including A dissertation on the means of preserving health in Charleston and the Lowcountry (1796) and The history of the revolution of South-Carolina, from a British province to an independent state (1785). On May 8, 1815 he was shot dead on Broad Street in Charleston by an unstable patient whose insanity he had certified previously. Read about Ramsay here and here.


    Roustan, Antoine-Jacques

    Swiss pastor and theologian. Read about Roustan from the Biographie Universelle. "ROUSTAN (Antoine-Jacques)". Biographie universelle ou Dictionnaire de tous les hommes qui se sont fait remarquer par leurs écrits, leurs actions, leurs talents, leurs vertus ou leurs crimes, depuis le commencement du monde jusqu'a ce jour (in French). 17 Ritzon - Scheremetof. Brussels: H. Ode. 1846, p. 140.


    Sidney, Algernon

    Philosopher. Read about Sidney here.

    John Quincy Adams:


    Thacher, Peter


    Thacher, Peter


    Thacher, Thomas

    Pastor of Third Church in Dedham.


    De Vattel, Emer

    Swiss philosopher, diplomat, and legal expert whose theories laid the foundation of modern international law and political philosophy. Read about Vattel here and here.


    Warren, Joseph

    American doctor and patriot. Died at Battle of Bunker Hill. Read about Warren here and here.


    Warren, Mercy Otis

    American historian and playwright. "The Conscience of the American Revolution." Read more about Warren here, here, here and from Doris Weatherford, American Women's History: An A to Z of People, Organizations, Issues, and Events. [New York: Prentise Hall, 1994] pp. 364-365.


    West, Samuel

    Clergyman. Read more about West here. Disclaimer: West taught doctrine that became Unitarianism.


    Witherspoon, John

    Reverend. Read more about Witherspoon here and here and here.

    Ellis Sandoz, editor: ... "Witherspoon served intermittently in Congress until 1782 and was a member of over a hundred legislative committees, including two vital standing committees, the Board of War and the Committee on Foreign Affairs. In the latter role, he took a leading part in drawing up the instructions for the American peace commissioners who concluded the Treaty of Paris, which ended the war in September 1783. He later served in the New Jersey legislature and was a member of that state's ratifying convention for the Constitution in 1787.

    "Witherspoon has been called the most influential professor in American history, not only because of his powerful writing and speaking style--and he was carefully attended to on all subjects, both here and abroad--but also because of his long tenure at Princeton. His teaching and the reforms he made there radiated his influence across the country. He trained not only a substantial segment of the leadership among Presbyterians but a number of political leaders as well. Nine of the fifty-five participants in the Federal Convention in 1787 were Princeton graduates, chief among them James Madison (who, among other things, spent an extra year studying Hebrew and philosophy with Witherspoon after his graduation in 1771). Moreover, his pupils included a president and a vice-president of the United States, twenty-one senators, twenty-nine representatives, fifty-six state legislators, and thirty-three judges, three of whom were appointed to the Supreme Court. During the Revolution, his pupils were everywhere in positions of command in the American forces.

    "Witherspoon's The Dominion of Providence Over the Passions of Men caused a great stir when it was first preached in Princeton and published in Philadelphia in 1776, about a month before he was elected to the Continental Congress on June 22. He reminds his auditors that the sermon is his first address on political matters from the pulpit: ministers of the Gospel have more important business to attend to than secular crises, but, of course, liberty is more than a merely secular matter."

    --Political Sermons of the American Founding Era: 1730-1805, 2 vols, Foreword by Ellis Sandoz (2nd ed. Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 1998). Vol. 1.


    Zubly, John Joachim


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