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America's Christian Heritage

Delegates of the Constitution

This is a collection of biographies and other papers of the Founding Fathers who forged the Constitution of the United States. The delegates met in Philadelphia on May 14, 1787, and the document was signed September 17, 1787. From the National Archives: "The original states, except Rhode Island, collectively appointed 70 individuals to the Constitutional Convention, but a number did not accept or could not attend. Those who did not attend included Richard Henry Lee, Patrick Henry, Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, Samuel Adams and, John Hancock. In all, 55 delegates attended the Constitutional Convention sessions, but only 39 actually signed the Constitution."

Religious affiliation is referenced from adherents.com and other sources so noted.


Historical Overview

  • America's Founding Fathers. From: Robert G. Ferris (editor), Signers of the Constitution: Historic Places Commemorating the Signing of the Constitution, published by the United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service: Washington, D.C. (revised edition 1976), page 138: Most of the [signers of the Constitution] married and fathered children. Sherman sired the largest family, numbering 15 by two wives... Three (Baldwin, Gilman, and Jenifer) were lifetime bachelors. In terms of religious affiliation, the men mirrored the overwhelmingly Protestant character of American religious life at the time and were members of various denominations. Only two, Carroll and Fitzsimons, were Roman Catholics.

  • The American's Guide: The Constitutions of the United States of America, with the latest amendments: also the Declaration of Independence, Articles of Confederation, with the federal Constitution, and acts for the government of the territories. New-York: Evert Duyckinck, 1813; G. Long. 392 pp. 15 cm.

  • The American's Own Book, containing the Declaration of Independence, with the Lives of the Signers: The Constitution of the United States, The inaugural addresses and first annual messages of all the presidents from Washington to Pierce, the farewell addresses of George Washington and Andrew Jackson, with a portrait and life of each president of the United States, to the present time. New York, 1855. 495 pp.

  • John Reynolds Bigelow. The American's Own Book, or, The Constitutions of the several states in the Union: embellished with the seals of the different states. New-York, 1849. 566 pp.

  • Edward Currier. The Political Textbook: containing the Declaration of Independence, with the lives of the signers; the Constitution of the United States; the inaugural addresses and first annual messages of all the Presidents, from Washington to Tyler; the farewell addresses of George Washington and Andrew Jackson; and a variety of useful tables, etc. Worcester, Mass, W. Blake, 1842. 512 pp. tables. 19 cm.

  • The Constitutions of the United States of America, with their latest amendments carefully corrected. Baltimore: From the Franklin Press, by H. Niles, 1815. 6, 225 pp. Contents: Declaration of Independence, Constitution of the United States, and the Constititutions of New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, Vermont, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Dalaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Kentucky, Tennessee, Ohio, Louisiana.

  • Marshall, James V., c. 1856. Herringshaw's national library of American biography : contains thirty-five thousand biographies of the acknowledged leaders of life and thought of the United States; illustrated with three thousand vignette portraits. Chicago: American Publishers' Association, 1909, v1.

  • Herringshaw, Thomas William, 1858- . The United States manual of biography and history: comprising lives of the presidents and vice presidents of the United States, and the cabinet officers, from the adoption of the Constitution to the present day. Also, lives of the signers of the Declaration of independence, and of the old Articles of confederation, of the framers of the Constitution of the United States, and of the chief justices of the Supreme court of the United States. With authentic copies of the Declaration of independence, the Articles of confederation, and the Constitution of the United States. To which is prefixed an introductory history of the United States. . Philadelphia, 1856. 727 pp.


  • William Leigh Pierce, 1740-1789. William Pierce's notes on Delegates to the Federal Convention From the Constitutional Convention, May 14, 1787 - Sept. 17, 1787.

  • William Leigh Pierce, 1740-1789. Notes of Major William Pierce (Georgia) in the Federal Convention of 1787.


    Researchers are invited to peruse additional resources at



    Signers of the Constitution

    Blair, Jr., John
    (1732-1800)

    Presbyterian; Episcopalian. Virginian legal scholar, educated at the College of William and Mary and studied law at London's Middle Temple. He was a delegate from Virginia to the U.S. Constitutional Convention (1787) and served as an Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court (1790-1795). His father, also called John Blair (1687-1771) served on the Virginia Council and was at one time the acting Royal Governor of Virginia. (OCLC Note) Read more about Blair here, here, and here.
    He was identified as a Presbyterian by 1995 Information Please Almanac. The Library of Congress was cited as the source stating he was later an Episcopalian. (Source: Ian Dorion, "Table of the Religious Affiliations of American Founders", 1997).

    WORKS

    Blount, William
    (1749-1800)

    Episcopalian; Presbyterian. Delegate to the Constitutional Convention for North Carolina, the first and only governor of the Southwest Territory, and Democratic-Republican Senator from Tennessee (1796-1797). He played a major role in establishing the state of Tennessee. He was the first U.S. Senator to be expelled from the Senate and the only Senator expelled outside of the Civil War. Read about Blount here, here, here, here and here.
    He was identified as an Episcopalian by the Library of Congress. The North Carolina State Library and A Worthy Company: Brief Lives of the Framers of the United States Constitution by M. E. Bradford were cited as the sources stating he was later a Presbyterian. (Source: Ian Dorion, "Table of the Religious Affiliations of American Founders", 1997).
    From: Robert G. Ferris (editor), Signers of the Constitution: Historic Places Commemorating the Signing of the Constitution, published by the United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service: Washington, D.C. (revised edition 1976), pages 146-148: Planter and land speculator Blount, who played an insignificant part at the Constitutional Convention, carved out a career in North Carolina and Tennessee as well as in national politics. It was marred, however, when he earned the dubious distinction of being the first man to be expelled from the U.S. Senate... In 1796 he presided over the constitutional convention that transformed part of the Territory into the State of Tennessee. He was elected as one of its first U.S. Senators (1796-97). During this period, Blount's affairs took a sharp turn for the worse. In 1797 his speculations in western lands led him into serious financial difficulties. That same year, he also apparently concocted a plan involving use of Indians, frontiersmen, and British naval forces to conquer for Britain the Spanish provinces of Florida and Louisiana. A letter he wrote alluding to the plan fell into the hands of President Adams, who turned it over to the Senate on July 3, 1797. Five days later, that body voted 25 to 1 to expel Blount. The House impeached him, but the Senate dropped the charges in 1799 on the grounds that no further action could be taken beyond his dismissal. The episode did not hamper Blount's career in Tennessee. In 1798 he was elected to the senate and rose to the speakership. He died two years later in Knoxville in his early fifties. He is buried there in the cemetery of the First Presbyterian Church.

    WORKS

    Brearley, David / Brearly, David
    (1745-1790)

    Episcopalian. Delegate to the U.S. Constitutional Convention and signed the U.S. Constitution on behalf of New Jersey. First Grand Master of the New Jersey Masonic Lodge. Read about Brearley here, here, here. here. He was identified as an Episcopalian by the Library of Congress. (Source: Ian Dorion, "Table of the Religious Affiliations of American Founders", 1997).
    From: Robert G. Ferris (editor), Signers of the Constitution: Historic Places Commemorating the Signing of the Constitution, published by the United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service: Washington, D.C. (revised edition 1976), pages 148-149:
    Brearly avidly backed the Revolutionary cause. The British apprehended him for high treason, but a group of patriots freed him. IN 1776 he took part in the convention that drew up the State constitution [of New Jersey]...
    Brearly's subsequent career was short, for he had only 3 years to live [after the Constitutional Convention]. He presided at the New Jersey convention that ratified the Constitution in 1788, and served as a Presidential elector in 1789. That same year, President Washington appointed him as a Federal District Judge and he served in that capacity until his death.
    When free from his judicial duties, Brearly devoted much energy to lodge and church affairs. He was one of the leading members of the Masonic Order in New Jersey, as well as State vice president of the Society of the Cincinnati, an organization of ex-Revolutionary War officers. In addition, he served as a delegate to the Episcopal General Conference (1786), and helped write the church's prayer book. In 1783, following the death of his first wife, he had married Elizabeth Higbee.
    Brearly died in Trenton at the age of 45 in 1790. He was buried there at St. Michael's Episcopal Church.

    WORKS

    Broom, Jacob
    (1752-1810)

    Lutheran. (OCLC): Jacob Broom (1752-1810) of Wilmington, Del., surveyor and businessman; venture in first cotton mill in the area; active in civic affairs and government in Wilmington and served several terms in the Delaware General Assembly; Delaware delegate to the Constitutional Convention; married Rachel Pierce in 1773 and they had eight children. James M. Broom (1776-1850); son of Jacob Broom; lawyer and Delaware representative in the U.S. House of Representatives from 1805 to 1807; of Wilmington, Baltimore, and Philadelphia. Read about Broom here, here and here. According to Ian Dorion, Jacob Broom was identified as a Quaker by the Library of Congress, and he was later an Episcopalian according to A History of Delaware Through its Governors 1776-1984 by Roger A. Martin. (Source: Ian Dorion, "Table of the Religious Affiliations of American Founders", 1997).

    WORKS

    Daniel of St. Thomas Jenifer
    (1723-1790)

    Episcopalian. Maryland delegate, Continental Congress 1778-1781 Confederation Congress 1781-1782, Maryland State Revenue and Financial Manager 1782-1785. Read about Jenifer here, here and here. He was identified as an Episcopalian by: the Library of Congress and A Worthy Company: Brief Lives of the Framers of the United States Constitution, written by M. E. Bradford. (Source: Ian Dorion, "Table of the Religious Affiliations of American Founders", 1997).

    WORKS

    Carroll, Daniel
    (1730-1796)

    Catholic. Delegate from Maryland. Carroll was one of only five men to sign both the Articles of Confederation and the Constitution of the United States. Read about Carroll here, here and here. He was identified as a Catholic by: U.S. Catholic Historical Society; A Worthy Company: Brief Lives of the Framers of the United States Constitution by M. E. Bradford; and the Library of Congress. (Source: Ian Dorion, "Table of the Religious Affiliations of American Founders", 1997).

    WORKS

    Dayton, Jonathan
    (1760-1824)

    Presbyterian; Episcopalian. Delegate, Representative, and Senator from New Jersey, as the Speaker of the House to the Fourth and Fifth Congresses, and was also involved in the Aaron Burr affair from 1805 to 1807. Read about Dayton here, here and here. He was identified as a Presbyterian by the Library of Congress. A Worthy Company: Brief Lives of the Framers of the United States Constitution by M. E. Bradford was cited as the source stating he was later an Episcopalian. (Source: Ian Dorion, "Table of the Religious Affiliations of American Founders", 1997).

    WORKS

    Dickinson, John
    (1732-1808)

    Quaker; Episcopalian. Delegate from Delaware. Read about Dickinson here, here, and here. He was identified as a Quaker in A Worthy Company: Brief Lives of the Framers of the United States Constitution by M. E. Bradford; A History of Delaware Through its Governors 1776-1984 by Roger A. Martin; and the Library of Congress. A Worthy Company: Brief Lives of the Framers of the United States Constitution by M. E. Bradford was cited as the source stating he was later an Episcopalian. (Source: Ian Dorion, "Table of the Religious Affiliations of American Founders", 1997).
    From: Robert G. Ferris (editor), Signers of the Constitution: Historic Places Commemorating the Signing of the Constitution, published by the United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service: Washington, D.C. (revised edition 1976), pages 158-160:
    The only "signer" who did not actually pen his name to the Constitution, because illness caused his early departure from the Convention, he [Dickinson] authorized a fellow delegate [George Read] to do so on his behalf. Nevertheless, he served on the committee on postponed matters and helped arrange the Great Compromise.
    Dickinson, "Penman of the Revolution," was born in 1732 ... In 1753 Dickinson went to England to continue his studies at London's Middle Temple. Four years later, he headed back to Philadelphia and became a prominent lawyer there ... Dickinson lived for two decades more, but held no public offices. Instead, he devoted himself to writing on politics, and in 1801 published two volumes of his collected works. He died at Wilmington in 1808 at the age of 75 and was entombed in the Friends Burial Ground [a Quaker cemetery].

    WORKS

    Few, William
    (1748-1828)

    Methodist. Delegate from Georgia at the Constitutional Convention. Read about Few here, here, here and here. He was identified as a Methodist by: A Worthy Company: Brief Lives of the Framers of the United States Constitution by M. E. Bradford; Georgia Public Library Service; and the Library of Congress. (Source: Ian Dorion, "Table of the Religious Affiliations of American Founders", 1997).

    WORKS

    Franklin, Benjamin
    (1706-1790)

    A Founding Father of the United States of America. Author, printer, satirist, political theorist, politician, scientist, inventor, civic activist, statesman, and diplomat. While he is considered to be a universalist, we include him here because he did promote Christian values. Read more about Franklin here, here, here, and in The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin.

    WORKS

    Gilman, Nicholas
    (1755-1814)

    Congregationalist. Soldier in the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War, a delegate to the Continental Congress, and a signer of the U.S. Constitution, representing New Hampshire. He was a member of the United States House of Representatives during the first four Congresses, and served in the U.S. Senate from 1804 until his death in 1814. Read about Gilman here, here and here. He was identified as a Congregationalist by: the Library of Congress and A Worthy Company: Brief Lives of the Framers of the United States Constitution, written by M. E. Bradford. (Source: Ian Dorion, "Table of the Religious Affiliations of American Founders", 1997).


    Gorham, Nathaniel
    (1738-1796)

    Congregationalist. Delegate from Massachusetts. Read about Gorham here, here here and here.He was identified as a Congregationalist by the Library of Congress and A Worthy Company: Brief Lives of the Framers of the United States Constitution, written by M. E. Bradford. (Source: Ian Dorion, "Table of the Religious Affiliations of American Founders", 1997).

    WORKS

    Hamilton, Alexander
    (1757-1804)

    Congregationalist. American statesman and economist. Delegate from Massachusetts. Read about Hamilton here, here, and here. He was identified as a Congregationalist by the Library of Congress and A Worthy Company: Brief Lives of the Framers of the United States Constitution, written by M. E. Bradford. (Source: Ian Dorion, "Table of the Religious Affiliations of American Founders", 1997).

    WORKS

    Ingersoll, Jared
    (1749-1822)

    Presbyterian. Delegate from Pennsylvania. Read about Ingersoll here, here, here and here. He was identified as a Presbyterian by: the Library of Congress and A Worthy Company: Brief Lives of the Framers of the United States Constitution, written by M. E. Bradford. (Source: Ian Dorion, "Table of the Religious Affiliations of American Founders", 1997).

    WORKS

    King, Rufus
    (1755-1827)

    Episcopalian; Congregationalist. Delegate from Massachusetts. Read about King here, here, here, here and here. He was identified as an Episcopalian by A Worthy Company: Brief Lives of the Framers of the United States Constitution, by M. E. Bradford. The Library of Congress was cited as the source stating he was later a Congregationalist. (Source: Ian Dorion, "Table of the Religious Affiliations of American Founders", 1997). From: Robert G. Ferris (editor), Signers of the Constitution: Historic Places Commemorating the Signing of the Constitution, published by the United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service: Washington, D.C. (revised edition 1976), page 182: ...at the age of 72, in 1827, he died ... He was laid to rest near King Manor in the cemetery of Grace Episcopal Church, Jamaica, Long Island, N.Y.

    WORKS

    Langdon, John
    (1741-1819)

    Congregationalist. Delegate from New Hampshire. Read about Langdon here, here, here, here and here. He was identified as an Congregationalist by: the Library of Congress and A Worthy Company: Brief Lives of the Framers of the United States Constitution, written by M. E. Bradford. (Source: Ian Dorion, "Table of the Religious Affiliations of American Founders", 1997).

    WORKS

    Livingston, William
    (1723-1790)

    Presbyterian. Governor of New Jersey during the American Revolution. Read more about Livingston here, here, here, here and here. He was identified as an Presbyterian by: the Library of Congress and A Worthy Company: Brief Lives of the Framers of the United States Constitution, written by M. E. Bradford. (Source: Ian Dorion, "Table of the Religious Affiliations of American Founders", 1997).

    WORKS

    Madison, Jr., James
    (1751-1836)

    Episcopalian. Delegate from Virginia. Fourth President of the United States. Rector of the University of Virginia at Charlottesville. Read more about Madison here, here and here. James Madison attended St. John's Episcopal Church while he was President. Some sources classify Madison was a deist.
    He was identified as an Episcopalian by the 1995 Information Please Almanac; A Worthy Company: Brief Lives of the Framers of the United States Constitution by M. E. Bradford; and the Library of Congress. Memoirs & Correspondence of Thomas Jefferson, IV, page 512 was cited as the source stating explicitly that Madison was a "theist." (Source: Ian Dorion, "Table of the Religious Affiliations of American Founders", 1997).

    WORKS

    McHenry, James
    (1753-1816)

    Presbyterian. Delegate from Maryland. Read about McHenry here, here, here, here and here. He was identified as a Presbyterian by: the Library of Congress and A Worthy Company: Brief Lives of the Framers of the United States Constitution, written by M. E. Bradford. (Source: Ian Dorion, "Table of the Religious Affiliations of American Founders", 1997).

    WORKS

    Mifflin, Thomas
    (1744-1800)

    Quaker; Lutheran. Delegate from Pennsylvania. Read about Mifflin here, here and here.

    WORKS

    Paterson, William
    (1745-1806)

    Presbyterian. Served as secretary to New Jersey's Provincial Congress before being named Attorney General in 1776, a position to which he served until 1783. Between 1780 and 1781 he served as a member of the Continental Congress. He was elected to the U.S. Senate from 1789-1790 and then became Governor of New Jersey until 1793. In 1793 he was appointed Justice of the United States Supreme Court until his death in 1806. Read more about Paterson here and here. He was identified as a Protestant by the 1995 Information Please Almanac. The Library of Congress and A Worthy Company: Brief Lives of the Framers of the United States Constitution by M. E. Bradford were cited as the sources stating he was a Presbyterian. (Source: Ian Dorion, "Table of the Religious Affiliations of American Founders", 1997).

    WORKS

    Thornton, Matthew
    (1714-1803)

    Congregationalist; Presbyterian. Signer of the United States Declaration of Independence as a representative of New Hampshire. Read about Thornton here, here, here, here, here, here and here. He was identified as a Presbyterian by the Presbyterian Historical Society and the Presbyterian Church, USA. (Source: Ian Dorion, "Table of the Religious Affiliations of American Founders", 1997).
    From: B. J. Lossing, Signers of the Declaration of Independence, George F. Cooledge & Brother: New York (1848) [reprinted in Lives of the Signers of the Declaration of Independence, WallBuilder Press: Aledo, Texas (1995)], page 21: Dr. Thornton was greatly beloved by all who knew him, and to the close of his long life he was a consistent and zealous Christian. He always enjoyed remarkably good health, and by the practice of those hygeian virtues, temperance and cheerfulness, he attained a patriarchal age.

    WORKS

    Washington, George
    (1732-1799)

    Episcopalian. Delegate from Virginia. President of the Constitutional Convention. First President of the United States. Read more about Washington here and here. George Washington was identified as an Episcopalian by the 1995 Information Please Almanac; the Library of Congress; and A Worthy Company: Brief Lives of the Framers of the United States Constitution by M. E. Bradford. Memoirs & Correspondence of Thomas Jefferson, IV, page 512 was cited as the source stating that Washington was a "theist." (Source: Ian Dorion, "Table of the Religious Affiliations of American Founders", 1997).

    WORKS

    Williamson, Hugh
    (1735-1819)

    Presbyterian. Congregational minister, legislator, jurist, and rector of Yale College from 1726 to 1739. Delegate from North Carolina. Read more about Williamson here, here, here, here, here and in Historical papers by Trinity College Historical Society.
    He was identified as a Presbyterian by North Carolina State Library and the Library of Congress. A Worthy Company: Brief Lives of the Framers of the United States Constitution by M. E. Bradford was cited as the source stating he was a Deist. (Source: Ian Dorion, "Table of the Religious Affiliations of American Founders", 1997).

    WORKS


    Constitutional Delegates Who Didn't Sign

    Davie, William Richardson
    (1756-1820)

    Presbyterian. Delegate from North Carolina. Read about Davie here and here. From: Political Graveyard website (http://politicalgraveyard.com/bio/davie-davila.html#RDH0Q0LE7; December 2005): Davie, William Richardson (1756-1820) - also known as "Father of the University of North Carolina" - of Halifax, Halifax County, N.C. Born in Egremont, England, June 22, 1756. Served in the Continental Army during the Revolutionary War; member, U.S. Constitutional Convention, 1787; Governor of North Carolina, 1798-99. Presbyterian. Member, Freemasons. Died in Land's Ford, Chester County, S.C., November 5, 1820. Interment at Old Waxhaw Presbyterian Church, The Waxhaws, S.C. Davie County, N.C. is named for him.

    WORKS

    Ellsworth, Oliver
    (1745-1807)

    Congregationalist. Delegate from Connecticut. American statesman and jurist. Read more about Ellsworth here and here. Political Graveyard website (http://politicalgraveyard.com/bio/ellsworth.html#R9M0IW34R; viewed 7 December 2005): Ellsworth, Oliver (1745-1807) - of Connecticut. Born in Windsor, Hartford County, Conn., April 29, 1745. Grandnephew by marriage of Roger Wolcott; father of William Wolcott Ellsworth. Delegate to Continental Congress from Connecticut, 1777-84; superior court judge in Connecticut, 1785-89; member, U.S. Constitutional Convention, 1787; U.S. Senator from Connecticut, 1789-96; received 11 electoral votes, 1796; Chief Justice of U.S. Supreme Court, 1796-1800. Congregationalist. Member, Freemasons. Died in Windsor, Hartford County, Conn., November 26, 1807. Interment at Palisado Cemetery, Windsor, Conn.

    WORKS

    Gerry, Elbridge Thomas
    (1744-1814)

    Episcopalian. Delegate from Massachusetts. Signer of the Declaration of Independence. Read about Gerry here, here, here, here and here. He was identified as an Episcopalian by the A Worthy Company: Brief Lives of the Framers of the United States Constitution by M. E. Bradford. (Source: Ian Dorion, "Table of the Religious Affiliations of American Founders", 1997). From: Political Graveyard website (http://politicalgraveyard.com/bio/gerry.html#R9M0IXWKX; viewed 23 November 2005): Gerry, Elbridge (1744-1814) of Massachusetts. Born in Marblehead, Essex County, Mass., July 17, 1744. Grandfather of Elbridge Gerry (1813-1886); great-grandfather of Peter Goelet Gerry. Delegate to Continental Congress from Massachusetts, 1776-80, 1782-85; signer, Declaration of Independence, 1776; signer, Articles of Confederation, 1777; member of Massachusetts state house of representatives, 1786; member, U.S. Constitutional Convention, 1787; U.S. Representative from Massachusetts 3rd District, 1789-93; Governor of Massachusetts, 1810-12; defeated, 1801, 1812; Vice President of the United States, 1813-14; died in office 1814. Episcopalian. The word gerrymander ("Gerry" plus "salamander") was coined to describe an oddly shaped Massachusetts senate district his party created in 1811, and later came to mean any unfair districting. Died in Washington, D.C., November 23, 1814. Interment at Congressional Cemetery, Washington, D.C.

    WORKS

    Houston, William C.
    (1746-1788)

    Presbyterian. Delegate from New Jersey. Read about Houston here, here, here, and here. From: Political Graveyard website http://politicalgraveyard.com/bio/houston.html#RIU0OWLC0: Houston, William Churchill (c.1746-1788) - of New Jersey. Born in South Carolina. Member of New Jersey state legislature, 1777-79; Delegate to Continental Congress from New Jersey, 1779-81, 1784-85; member, U.S. Constitutional Convention, 1787. Presbyterian. Died of tuberculosis, August 12, 1788.

    WORKS

    Houstoun, William
    (1755-1813)

    Episcopalian. Delegate from Georgia. Read about Houstoun here, here, here, and here. From: Political Graveyard website http://politicalgraveyard.com/bio/houstoun-howan.html#RIU0U3XQ5: Houstoun, William (1755-1813) - of Georgia. Born in Savannah, Chatham County, Ga., 1755. Father-in-law of Duncan Lamont Clinch. Delegate to Continental Congress from Georgia, 1784-86; member, U.S. Constitutional Convention, 1787. Episcopalian. Died in Savannah, Chatham County, Ga., March 17, 1813. Interment at St. Paul's Chapel, Manhattan, N.Y.

    WORKS

    Lansing, Jr., John
    (1754-c.1829)

    Dutch Reformed. Delegate from New York. Read about Lansing here, here, here, and here. From: Political Graveyard website http://politicalgraveyard.com/bio/ellsworth.html#R9M0IW34R: Lansing, John, Jr. (1754-c.1829) - of Albany, Albany County, N.Y. Born in Albany, Albany County, N.Y., January 30, 1754. Uncle of Gerrit Yates Lansing. Member of New York state assembly from Albany County, 1780-84, 1785-87, 1788-89; Delegate to Continental Congress from New York, 1785; mayor of Albany, N.Y., 1786-90; member, U.S. Constitutional Convention, 1787; Justice of New York Supreme Court, 1790-1801. Christian Reformed. Mysteriously disappeared in New York City, December 12, 1829, after leaving his hotel to post a letter, and was never found. Cenotaph at Albany Rural Cemetery, Menands, N.Y.

    WORKS

    Martin, Alexander
    (1740-1807)

    Presbyterian. Delegate from North Carolina. Read about Martin here, here, here, here and here. From: Political Graveyard website http://politicalgraveyard.com/bio/martin1.html#R9M0J5958: Martin, Alexander (1740-1807) - of Guilford County, N.C. Born in Hunterdon County, N.J., 1740. Lawyer; Governor of North Carolina, 1782-85, 1789-92; Delegate to Continental Congress from North Carolina, 1786; member, U.S. Constitutional Convention, 1787; U.S. Senator from North Carolina, 1793-99. Died November 2, 1807. Interment at a private or family graveyard, Stokes County, N.C.

    WORKS

    Martin, Luther
    (1744-1826)

    Episcopalian. Delegate from Maryland. Read about Martin here, here, here, and here. From: Political Graveyard website http://politicalgraveyard.com/bio/martin6.html#RIU0QFQ0W: Martin, Luther (1744-1826) - of Maryland. Born in New Brunswick, Middlesex County, N.J., February 9, 1744. Brother of Lenox Martin; cousin by marriage of Joseph Cresap, James Cresap and Thomas Cresap. Maryland state attorney general, 1778-1805, 1818-20; Delegate to Continental Congress from Maryland, 1784; member, U.S. Constitutional Convention, 1787. Episcopalian. Died in New York, New York County, N.Y., July 10, 1826. Interment at Trinity Churchyard, Manhattan, N.Y.

    WORKS

    Mason, George
    (1725-1792)

    Episcopalian. Delegate from Virginia. Read about Mason here, here, here, here, and here. From: Political Graveyard website http://politicalgraveyard.com/bio/mason.html#RIT0GNK79: Mason, George (1725-1792) - of Virginia. Born in Stafford County, Va., December 11, 1725. Brother of Thomson Mason; uncle of Stevens Thomson Mason (1760-1803); granduncle of Armistead Thomson Mason; grandfather of James Murray Mason; great-granduncle of Stevens Thomson Mason (1811-1843). Member of Virginia state legislature, 1759, 1776-80, 1786-88; member, U.S. Constitutional Convention, 1787-88. Episcopalian. Died October 7, 1792. Interment at Gunston Hall Grounds, Near Lorton, Fairfax County, Va.; statue at State Capitol Grounds, Richmond, Va. Mason counties in Ky. and W.Va. are named for him.

    WORKS

    McClurg, James
    (1746-1823)

    Presbyterian. Delegate from Virginia. Read about McClurg here, here, here, and here. From: Political Graveyard website http://politicalgraveyard.com/bio/mcclurg-mcconkey.html#RIU0S3LN0: McClurg, James (1746-1823) - of Williamsburg, Va.; Richmond, Va. Born in Hampton, Va., 1746. Physician; member, U.S. Constitutional Convention, 1787; mayor of Richmond, Va., 1797. In 1787, he advocated establishment of a monarchy for the United States. Died July 9, 1823. Interment at St. John's Churchyard, Richmond, Va.

    WORKS

    Mercer, John Francis
    (1759-1821)

    Episcopalian. Delegate from Maryland. Read about Mercer here, here, here, and here. From: Political Graveyard website http://politicalgraveyard.com/bio/mercer.html#R9M0J6I6Q: Mercer, John Francis (1759-1821) - Born in Stafford County, Va., May 17, 1759. Brother of James Mercer. Democrat. Colonel in the Continental Army during the Revolutionary War; Delegate to Continental Congress from Virginia, 1783-84; member, U.S. Constitutional Convention, 1787; member of Maryland state house of delegates, 1788-92, 1800-06; U.S. Representative from Maryland, 1792-94 (at-large 1792-93, 2nd District 1793-94); Governor of Maryland, 1801-03. Episcopalian. Member, Freemasons. Died in Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, Pa., August 30, 1821. Interment at a private or family graveyard, Anne Arundel County, Md. Mercer County, Mo. is named for him.

    WORKS

    Pierce, William Leigh
    (1740-1789)

    Episcopalian. Delegate from Georgia. Read about Pierce here, here, here, and here. From: Political Graveyard website http://politicalgraveyard.com/bio/pierce.html#RB60V6FQY: Pierce, William Leigh (1740-1789) - of Savannah, Chatham County, Ga. Born in 1740. Major in Continental Army during the Revolutionary War; member of Georgia state house of representatives, 1786; Delegate to Continental Congress from Georgia, 1787; member, U.S. Constitutional Convention, 1787. Episcopalian. Member, Society of the Cincinnati. Died in Savannah, Chatham County, Ga., December 10, 1789. Burial location unknown.

    WORKS

    Randolph, Edmund J.
    (1753-1813)

    Episcopalian. Delegate from Virginia. Read about Randolph here, here, here, and here. From: Political Graveyard website http://politicalgraveyard.com/bio/randolph.html#RAV0UVJ9Q: Randolph, Edmund Jenings (1753-1813) - of Virginia. Born in Williamsburg, Va., August 10, 1753. Nephew of Peyton Randolph; second cousin once removed of Thomas Mann Randolph; second cousin of John Randolph of Roanoke; second cousin twice removed of George Wythe Randolph; ancestor of Francis Beverley Biddle. Served in the Continental Army during the Revolutionary War; delegate to Virginia state constitutional convention, 1776; Virginia state attorney general, 1776-82; Delegate to Continental Congress from Virginia, 1779-82; Governor of Virginia, 1786-88; member, U.S. Constitutional Convention, 1787; member of Virginia state house of delegates, 1788; U.S. Attorney General, 1789-94; U.S. Secretary of State, 1794-95. Episcopalian. Member, Freemasons. Died in Millwood, Clarke County, Va., September 12, 1813. Interment at Old Chapel Cemetery, Millwood, Va. Randolph County, Ill. is named for him.

    WORKS

    Strong, Caleb
    (1745-1819)

    Congregationalist. Massachusetts lawyer and politician who served as the sixth and tenth Governor of Massachusetts. Read more about Strong here, here, here, here, and here.From: Political Graveyard website http://politicalgraveyard.com/bio/strong.html#R9M0JEB1Z: Strong, Caleb (1745-1819) - of Massachusetts. Born in Northampton, Hampshire County, Mass., January 9, 1745. Member of Massachusetts state house of representatives, 1776; member of Massachusetts state senate, 1780; Delegate to Continental Congress from Massachusetts, 1780; member, U.S. Constitutional Convention, 1787; U.S. Senator from Massachusetts, 1789-96; Governor of Massachusetts, 1800-07, 1812-16. Congregationalist. Member, American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Died November 7, 1819. Interment at Bridge Street Cemetery, Northampton, Mass.

    WORKS

    Wythe, George
    (1726-1806)

    Episcopalian. Delegate from Virginia. American lawyer, a judge, a prominent law professor, signer of the United States Declaration of Independence and "Virginia's foremost classical scholar." Read about Wythe here, here and here. He was identified as an Episcopalian by A Worthy Company: Brief Lives of the Framers of the United States Constitution by M. E. Bradford. (Source: Ian Dorion, "Table of the Religious Affiliations of American Founders", 1997). From: Political Graveyard website (http://politicalgraveyard.com/bio/wyche-wyvell.html#R9U0H1ZK9; viewed 7 December 2005): Wythe, George (1726-1806) - of Virginia. Born in Elizabeth City County, Va. (now part of Hampton, Va.), 1726. Member of Virginia state legislature, 1758-68; Delegate to Continental Congress from Virginia, 1775-77; signer, Declaration of Independence, 1776; state court judge in Virginia, 1777; member, U.S. Constitutional Convention, 1787; delegate to Virginia state constitutional convention, 1788. Episcopalian. Apparently murdered -- poisoned by his grandnephew -- and died two weeks later, in Richmond, Va., June 8, 1806. Interment at St. John's Churchyard, Richmond, Va. Wythe County, Va. is named for him.

    WORKS

    Yates, Robert
    (1738-1801)

    Dutch Reformed. Delegate from New York. Read about Yates here, here, here, and here. Robert Yates was a member of the Dutch Reformed Church. From: Political Graveyard website http://politicalgraveyard.com/bio/yates.html#RIU0O4CG5: Yates, Robert (1738-1801) - of New York. Born in Albany, Albany County, N.Y., January 27, 1738. State court judge in New York, 1777-98; member, U.S. Constitutional Convention, 1787; candidate for Governor of New York, 1789, 1795. Christian Reformed. Died September 9, 1801. Original interment in unknown location; reinterment at Albany Rural Cemetery, Menands, N.Y.

    WORKS


    Other Statesmen and Patriots

    Gilman, John Taylor
    (1753-1828)

    Read about Gilman here, here, here, and here.

    WORKS

    Goodrich, Elizur
    (1734-1797)

    Pastor of the Church of Christ in Durham, Connecticut. Read about Goodrich here, and here.

    WORKS

    Henry, Patrick
    (1736-1799)

    Episcopalian. (See Wirt, page 402.) Read more about Henry here, here, and here.

    WORKS


    Definitions

    Of the following definitions, two dictionaries are used: Webster's An American Dictionary of the English Language, 1828, and Oxford English Dictionary, 1989.

    Christian

    CHRISTIAN, n.
    1. A believer in the religion of Christ.
    2. A professor of his belief in the religion of Christ.
    3. A real disciple of Christ; one who believes in the truth of the Christian religion, and studies to follow the example, and obey the precepts, of Christ; a believer in Christ who is characterized by real piety.
    4. In a general sense, the word Christians includes all who are born in a Christian country or of Christian parents.

    CHRISTIAN, a. [See the Noun.]
    1. Pertaining to Christ, taught by him, or received from him; as the Christian religion; Christian doctrines.
    2. Professing the religion of Christ; as a Christian friend.
    3. Belonging to the religion of Christ; relating to Christ, or to his doctrines, precepts and example; as christian profession and practice.
    4. Pertaining to the church; ecclesiastical; as courts Christian.

    --Noah Webster. An American Dictionary of the English Language, intended to exhibit, I. The origin, affinities and primary signification of English words, as far as they have been ascertained: II. The genuine orthography and pronunciation of words, according to general usage or to just principles of analogy: III. Accurate and discriminating definitions, with numerous authorities and illustrations: to which are prefixed an introductory dissertation on the origin, history and connection of the languages of Western Asia and of Europe and a concise grammar of the English language. New York: S. Converse, (New Haven [Conn.]: (Hezekiah Howe), 1828.

    CHRISTIAN, adj. and n.
    A. adj.
    1. a. Of persons and communities: Believing, professing, or belonging to the religion of Christ.
    2. a. Of things: Pertaining to Christ or his religion: of or belonging to Christianity.
    B. n.
    1. a. One who believes or professes the religion of Christ; an adherent of Christianity.

    Christian, adj. and n.
    --Oxford English Dictionary,Second edition, 1989; online version November 2010. ; accessed 30 January 2011. Earlier version first published in New English Dictionary, 1889.

    Christianity

    CHRISTIANITY, n.
    2. a. The religion of Christ; the Christian faith; the system of doctrines and precepts taught by Christ and his apostles.

    Christianity, n.
    --Oxford English Dictionary,Second edition, 1989; online version November 2010. ; accessed 30 January 2011. Earlier version first published in New English Dictionary, 1889.

    Theocracy

    THEOC'RACY, n. [Gr. God, and power; to hold.] Government of a state by the immediate direction of God; or the state thus governed. Of this species the Israelites furnish an illustrious example. The theocracy lasted till the time of Saul.

    Noah Webster. An American Dictionary of the English Language, 1828.

    THEOCRACY, n.
    a. A form of government in which God (or a deity) is recognized as the king or immediate ruler, and his laws are taken as the statute-book of the kingdom, these laws being usually administered by a priestly order as his ministers and agents; hence (loosely) a system of government by a sacerdotal order, claiming a divine commission; also, a state so governed: esp. applied to the commonwealth of Israel from the exodus to the election of Saul as king.

    theocracy, n.
    --Oxford English Dictionary,Second edition, 1989; online version November 2010. ; accessed 31 January 2011. Earlier version first published in New English Dictionary, 1912.

    Deism

    DEISM, n. [L. God.] The doctrine or creed of a deist; the belief or system of religious opinions of those who acknowledge the existence of one God, but deny revelation: or deism is the belief in natural religion only, or those truths, in doctrine and practice, which man is to discover by the light of reason, independent and exclusive of any revelation from God. Hence deism implies infidelity or a disbelief in the divine origin of the scriptures.
    The view which the rising greatness of our country presents to my eyes, is greatly tarnished by the general prevalence of deism, which, with me, is but another name for vice and depravity. P. Henry, Wirys Sketches.

    --Noah Webster. An American Dictionary of the English Language, 1828.

    DEISM, n.
    1. The distinctive doctrine or belief of a deist; usually, belief in the existence of a Supreme Being as the source of finite existence, with rejection of revelation and the supernatural doctrines of Christianity; 'natural religion'.

    deism, n.
    --Oxford English Dictionary,Second edition, 1989; online version November 2010. ; accessed 30 January 2011. Earlier version first published in New English Dictionary, 1894.

    Deist

    DEIST, n. One who believes in the existence of a God, but denies revealed religion, but follows the light of nature and reason, as his only guides in doctrine and practice; a freethinker.

    --Noah Webster. An American Dictionary of the English Language, 1828.

    DEIST, n.
    One who acknowledges the existence of a God upon the testimony of reason, but rejects revealed religion. (The term was originally opposed to atheist, and was interchangeable with theist even in the end of the 17th c. (Locke, Second Vindication, 1695, W. Nichols Conference with a Theist, 1696); but the negative aspect of deism, as opposed to Christianity, became the accepted one, and deist and theist were differentiated as in quots. 1878-1880.)

    deist, n.
    --Oxford English Dictionary,Second edition, 1989; online version November 2010. ; accessed 30 January 2011. Earlier version first published in New English Dictionary, 1894.

    Unitarian

    UNITA'RIAN, n. [L. unitus, unus.] One who denies the doctrine of the trinity, and ascribes divinity to God the Father only. The Arian and Socinian are both comprehended in the term Unitarian.

    --Noah Webster. An American Dictionary of the English Language, 1828.

    UNITARIAN, n. and adj.
    A. n.
    1. Theol.
    a. One who affirms the unipersonality of the Godhead, especially as opposed to an orthodox Trinitarian; spec. a member or adherent of a Christian religious body or sect holding this doctrine.

    Unitarian, n. and adj.
    --Oxford English Dictionary,Second edition, 1989; online version November 2010. ; accessed 30 January 2011. Earlier version first published in New English Dictionary, 1924.

    Secular

    SEC'ULAR, a. [L. secularis, from seculum, the world or an age.]
    1. Pertaining to the present world, or to things not spiritual or holy; relating to things not immediately or primarily respecting the soul, but the body; worldly. The secular concerns of life respect making making provision for the support of life, the preservation of health, the temporal prosperity of men, of states, &c. Secular power is that which superintends and governs the temporal affairs of men, the civil or political power; and is contradistinguished from spiritual or ecclsiastical power.
    2. Among catholics, not regular; not bound by monastic vows or rules; not confines to a monastery or subject to the rules of a religious community. Thus we say, the secular clergy and the regular clergy.
    3. Coming once in a century; as a secular year.

    --Noah Webster. An American Dictionary of the English Language, 1828.

    Pluralism

    PLURALISM, n.
    3. Polit. A theory or system of devolution and autonomy for organizations and individuals in preference to monolithic state power. Also: (advocacy of) a political system within which many parties or organizations have access to power.
    4. The presence or tolerance of a diversity of ethnic or cultural groups within a society or state; (the advocacy of) toleration or acceptance of the coexistence of differing views, values, cultures, etc.

    pluralism, n.
    --Oxford English Dictionary,Third edition, December 2009; online version November 2010. ; accessed 30 January 2011. An entry for this word was first included in New English Dictionary, 1907.

    Enlightenment

    ENLIGHTENMENT, n.
    1. b. spec. Usu. with capital initial. The action or process of freeing human understanding from the accepted and customary beliefs sanctioned by traditional, esp. religious, authority, chiefly by rational and scientific inquiry into all aspects of human life, which became a characteristic goal of philosophical writing in the late 17th and 18th centuries. Freq. in the Age of Enlightenment (cf. sense 2).Closely associated with sense 2.

    2. With the and capital initial. The dominant European intellectual culture in the 18th cent. which typically emphasized freedom of thought and action without reference to religious and other traditional authority, proposed a deistic understanding of the universe, insisted on a rationalist and scientific approach to the understanding of human society, the law, education, the economy, etc., and had as an important aim the development of new theoretical methods and practical reforms for these areas; (also) the period of time during which this climate of thought was dominant. Cf. Aufklärung n., illumination n. 3. The Enlightenment spread across most of Western Europe and to European colonies in the Americas, typically with different aspects predominating in different countries or regions (e.g. the flowering of social and economic thought in Scotland). Hence, the term is often modified by an adjective denoting one of the main centres of activity, suggesting the particular characteristics or contribution of the thinkers from that area, as French Enlightenment, Scottish Enlightenment, etc.

    Enlightenment, n.
    --Oxford English Dictionary, Third edition, August 2010; online version November 2010. ; accessed 30 January 2011. An entry for this word was first included in New English Dictionary, 1891.

    "Enlightenment, French siècle des Lumières (Age of the Enlightened), German Aufklärung, a European intellectual movement of the 17th and 18th centuries in which ideas concerning God, reason, nature, and man were synthesized into a worldview that gained wide assent and that instigated revolutionary developments in art, philosophy, and politics. Central to Enlightenment thought were the use and the celebration of reason, the power by which man understands the universe and improves his own condition. The goals of rational man were considered to be knowledge, freedom, and happiness.

    ... "Enlightenment thought, however, failed in many respects. It tried to replace a religious world view with one erected by human reason. It failed in this because it found reason so often accompanied by willpower, emotions, passions, appetites, and desires that reason can neither explain nor control. In the end, the adequacy of reason itself was attacked, first by David Hume in his 'Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding', and later by Immanuel Kant in the 'Critique of Pure Reason'. Most thinkers came to realize that cool and calculating reason is insufficient to explain the variety of human nature and the puzzling flow of history."

    --Enlightenment. (2011). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/188441/Enlightenment


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