United States evangelical writer and minister, noted for his radio program entitled Grace to You. Read more about MacArthur here and his ministry, Grace to You.
The Resurrection and the Life: John 11:17-36.
The miracle of John 11 testified to the disciples that Jesus was the Son of God in spite of their doubts. He raised Lazarus to convince them of His power over death. It wasn't to be many days until they saw Him hanging on a cross. They needed the hope the miracle of chapter 11 could provide to prevent any doubts that He was the Messiah. In the process of increasing their faith, Jesus offered three levels of evidence for His power over death: First, He told them He would rise. In John 2:19, Jesus said this to the Jewish leaders in the presence of some of His disciples: "... Destroy this temple [a reference to His body], and in three days I will raise it up" (cf. Mk. 10:33-34). Second, He said, "Let me show you a little of My resurrection power" and proceeded to raise Lazarus. Finally, He rose from the grave Himself. Following His resurrection, the disciples were transformed into dynamic witnesses of the gospel. Most died as martyrs for proclaiming the truth. Having seen His resurrection power exhibited in Lazarus and Himself, they helped change the world. His power over death made such an impact on them that the central theme of their preaching was His resurrection.
The Hope of the Resurrection: 1 Corinthians 15:1-58.
Now, by way of introduction to this chapter, let me say this - that the resurrection from the dead is the cornerstone of Christian doctrine. It is mentioned at least 104 times in the New Testament. It was and is and always will be the absolute most prominent fact in the history of the world. When the apostolic company, for example, after the apostasy of Judas, set about to choose one to take his place, the first chapter of Acts record for us that they wanted to have one, that he might be a witness with them of the resurrection. The resurrection was the great emphatic point in the sermon of Peter on the day of Pentecost. He said, "This Jesus hath God raised up, whereof we are all witnesses." When the apostles were later filled with the Holy Spirit, the one central result was that "with great power," the Bible says, "gave the apostles witness to the resurrection of the Lord Jesus." The central doctrine the Apostle Paul preached on Mars Hill in the city of Athens in Acts 17 to those philosophers was the resurrection of Jesus Christ. Later on, when the Jews caught Paul in the temple in Acts chapter 26 and sought to kill him, he received help from God, and he preached to them the resurrection of Jesus Christ.
The resurrection is everything to Christianity. The crucifixion loses its meaning without the resurrection. The life of Christ is a waste without that resurrection. Without the resurrection, the death of Christ becomes the heroic death of a noble martyr. Or it becomes the execution of a fraud. Or maybe it becomes the pathetic death of a deranged madman. But with the resurrection, it becomes the death of the atoning Son of God. You see, it wasn't His teaching, and it wasn't His miracles, and it wasn't His dying that accounted for the church and accounted for Christianity. It was His resurrection. There would be no church if He had not risen. When He died, the disciples were scattered like chaff to the wind, and it was in His resurrection that He regathered Him, and it is by His resurrection that He continues today to regather His own from all over the world. We are products, my friend, of the resurrection. And because the resurrection of Jesus Christ is so important, Paul takes this entire chapter to detail out every part of it.
Resurrection: The Key to Everything.
The Lord Jesus Christ risen from the dead proves the truthfulness of the Word of God, the deity of the Son of God, the completion of the salvation of God, the establishment of the church of God, the inevitability of the judgment of God...and one last point, the eternal bliss of the people of God. His resurrection is the guarantee of our eternal heaven. Listen to these wonderful and familiar words, Jesus speaking, John 14, "Let not your heart be troubled, believe in God, believe also in Me. In My Father's house are many dwelling places, of it were not so I would have told you for I go to prepare a place for you. And if I go and prepare a place for you, I will come again, receive you to Myself that where I am there you may be also."
Right there Jesus is predicting His resurrection. He's headed to death but He says, "I'm going right through death into the Father's house to get a place ready for you and I'll be back to get you." If there's no resurrection, there's no place prepared for us. If there's no place prepared for us, there's no heaven for us. Everything depends on the resurrection.
Congregationalist pastor. Read more about Macclintock here.
Evidences of Christianity: A Sermon, delivered at the ordination of the Rev. Jesse Appleton, to the pastoral care of the Congregational Society in Hampton, February 22d, 1797. [Portsmouth, N.H.]: Printed at the Oracle-Press, in Portsmouth, N.H. by Charles Peirce., 1797. 24 pp.; 22 cm. (8vo)
Jesus and Paul. [New York]: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1912. p. -578; 23 cm. This essay was originally published in Biblical And Theological Studies by The Members of the Faculty of Princeton Theological Seminary, later to be transformed into one of the chapters in The Origin of Paul's Religion.
Liberalism or Christianity?. An Address delivered, in substance, in the Wayne Presbyterian Church, Wayne, Pennsylvania, November 3, 1921, before the Twenty- Eighth Annual Convention of the Ruling Elders' Association of Chester Presbytery, on the subject, "The Present Attack against the Fundamentals of our Christian Faith, from the Point of View of Colleges and Seminaries." Originally published in The Princeton Theological Review, Vol. 20, 1922, p. 93. Machen later turned this short essay into a manuscript which was published in 1923 under the title: Christianity & Liberalism (Macmillan, 1923). This article, however, is now in the public domain (original pagination has been kept intact for purposes of reference). This electronic edition was scanned and edited by Shane Rosenthal for Reformation Ink.
Christianity and Liberalism. New York, The Macmillan company, 1923. 5 p. l., 189 pp. 20 cm. Partly reprinted from the Princeton Theological Review and the Presbyterian.
Christian Faith in the Modern World. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1936. vi, 258 pp.; 20 cm. A paperback edition was printed in 1965. Contents:
The present emergency and how to meet it -- How may God be known? -- Has God spoken? -- Is the Bible the Word of God? -- Do we believe in verbal inspiration? -- Shall we defend the Bible? -- The Bible versus human authority -- Life founded upon truth -- God, the creator -- The triune God -- What is the deity of Christ? -- Does the Bible teach the deity of Christ? -- The Sermon on the Mount and the deity of Christ -- What Jesus said about himself -- The supernatural Christ -- Did Christ rise from the dead? -- The testimony of Paul to Christ -- The Holy Spirit.
With James Oscar Boyd (1874-1947). A Brief Bible History: A Survey of the Old and New Testaments. Philadelphia, The Westminster press, 1922. 4 p. l., 7-128 pp. 19 cm.
The Living Saviour. London: Evangelical Press, 1900. 11 pp.; 19 cm.
This sermon is taken from a volume entitled God Transcendent published by Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, of Grand Rapids, Michigan.
The Resurrection of Christ. This essay appears in the collection of Machen sermons and articles titled, "Historic Christianity," (A Skilton House Ministries -- Sowers Publication, Philadelphia, 1997). The electronic edition of this book was scanned and edited by Shane Rosenthal for Reformation Ink. Original pagination has been retained for purposes of reference.
The Gospel in the Modern World. P&R Publishing, January 2005. 40 pp. Buy this book here.
The Virgin Birth of Christ. [2nd. ed.] New York, Harper, 1930.
x p., 2 l., 415 p. 24.5 cm. Containing in substance ... the Thomas Smyth lectures which the author had the honor of delivering at Columbia theological seminary in the spring of 1927.
Also published by Clarke, James Company, Limited, November 1987. 432 pp. Buy this book here.
See also Robert Gromacki, The Virgin Birth (A Biblical Study of the Deity of Jesus Christ). Buy this book here.
On the Deity of Christ. He was saving those people from bodily ills, but He was also saving their souls from sin. That becomes explicit in the healing of the paralytic borne of four, where Jesus says not only 'Arise and walk' but 'Thy sins are forgiven thee.' But it is really implied in the cases where it is not expressed. Jesus according to all the Gospels saves men from sin, and the means which He uses to save them from sin is the faith which He bids them have in Him the Saviour.
Thus Jesus, according to all the Gospels, presents Himself as the object of a truly religious faith. Well, who is the object of a truly religious faith? The answer is very simple. He is God. The way in which, in all the Gospels and even in the sources supposed, rightly or wrongly, to underlie the Gospels, Jesus presents Himself as the object of faith is a tremendous testimony by Jesus Himself to His own deity. That testimony does not appear merely in individual passages. It is a kind of atmosphere that pervades the whole picture, or, to change the figure, a foundation that sustains the whole building. If you ignore it, the whole account which the Bible gives of Jesus becomes a hopeless puzzle.
Biblical scholar. Read about MacKnight here. "Agreeably to the plan of this sketch, any critical account of Dr. Macknight's works cannot with propriety be given here. It may only be observed, in general, that his reputation for sound criticism, extensive knowledge, and clear elucidation of the sacred writings, is rapidly increasing amongst Christians of every denomination; and he must be acknowledged to have been one of the most intelligent, judicious, and candid expositors of the Scriptures that ever appeared. Even during his own lifetime his diligence was rewarded by an ample portion of respectable fame. The "Harmony of the Gospels" has long been esteemed a work of standard excellence for the students of evangelical knowledge.--"Account of the Life and Character of James MacKnight, D. D." from A New Literal Translation from the Original Greek.
Truth of the Gospel History.
His "Truth of the Gospel History" has hitherto attracted the notice of the public less than any of his other productions: but it well deserves to be more generally read, since, of what it proposes to establish, it contains the most satisfying views that can be suggested by learning, acuteness, and good sense, and is admitted by the best of judges to be a performance as useful and instructive as any we have on that important subject."--"Account of the Life and Character of James Macknight, D. D." from A New Literal Translation from the Original Greek.
A New Literal Translation from the Original Greek, of All the Apostolical Epistles: With a Commentary, and Notes, Philological, Critical, Explanatory, and Practical, to which is Added a History of the Life of the Apostle Paul. Philadelphia: Thomas Wardle, 1841. 776 pp.
'The Commentary on the Apostolical Epistles' is now held in peculiar estimation; and it may be doubted whether the scope of the sacred authors of these writings was ever, in any former age of Christianity, so fully, clearly, and happily stated, as has been done by Dr. Macknight in the general Views and Illustrations which he has prefixed to the several Chapters of the Epistles.?In this able, judicious, and learned Work, the Author's method of explaining the Scriptures is everywhere employed with the greatest success. His object was to discover the meaning of the inspired writers in difficult passages, from a comprehensive view of all the circumstances to which they allude, without regard to interpretations of mere human authority. Hence, although on principle attached to the established standards of the Church of Scotland, he did not conceive it as any advantage to the system which he maintained, to urge in support of its peculiar doctrines every passage which zeal without knowledge may have employed for that purpose. Nothing, in fact, tends more to injure the cause of truth and religion than an injudicious appeal to Scripture; or the attempt to establish opinions by the sanction of scriptural words or passages, quoted singly, without regard to what precedes or follows them, and thus invested with a meaning, more than probably, entirely different from what was intended hy the sacred writers. Of this mistaken application Dr. MACKNIGHT has shewn various instances; remarking, that when a doctrine is sufficiently established by any passage in which it is expressly or undoubtedly declared, we only weaken it by any appeal to other passages, of which the application to that doctrine may be dubious, or at best equivocal.?Accordingly it must be allowed, that in this method of eliciting the true meaning of Scripture, by a due respect to parallel passages, and the design of the whole context, the exposition and views which, with much sagacity of critical investigation, our Author has given of Paul's Epistles, are extremely natural, acute, and sensible.
Sermons and Essays, by John M'Laurin published from the author's manuscripts, by John Gillies to which is prefixed, some account of the life and character of the author. Philadelphia: 1811. 384 pp. 18 cm.
Richard Peters, Counsellor at Law, editor. The Public Statutes at Large of the United States of America from the Organization of the Government in 1789, to March 3, 1845, Arranged in Chronological Order, with an Index to the Contents of Each Volume, and a Full General Index to the Whole Work, in the Concluding Volume. Volume 2 Extract.Twelfth Congress. Session I. June 17, 1812. Resolution requesting the President of the United States to Recommend a Day of Public Humiliation and Prayer. Boston: Charles C. Little and James Brown, 1845, p. 786. "It being a duty peculiarly incumbent in a time of public calamity and war, humbly and devoutly to acknowledge our dependence on Almighty God, and to implore his aid and protection:
Therefore, Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That a joint committee of both Houses wait on the President of the United States, and request that he recommend a day of public humiliation and prayer to be observed by the people of the United States, with religious solemnity, and the offering of fervent supplications to Almighty God for the safety and welfare of these States, his blessing on their arms, and the speedy restoration of peace."
Proclamation, July 9th, 1812.
Alternate source: James D. Richardson, editor. A Compilation of the Messages and Papers of the Presidents. Volume 1 of 11.
Part 4: James Madison, March 4, 1809 to March 4, 1817. Project Gutenberg.
[From Annals of Congress, Twelfth Congress, part 2, p. 2224.]
BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.
Whereas the Congress of the United States, by a joint resolution of the two Houses, have signified a request that a day may be recommended to be observed by the people of the United States with religious solemnity as a day of public humiliation and prayer; and
Whereas such a recommendation will enable the several religious
denominations and societies so disposed to offer at one and the same time their common vows and adorations to Almighty God on the solemn occasion produced by the war in which He has been pleased to permit the injustice of a foreign power to involve these United States:
I do therefore recommend the third Thursday in August next as a
convenient day to be set apart for the devout purposes of rendering the Sovereign of the Universe and the Benefactor of Mankind the public homage due to His holy attributes; of acknowledging the transgressions which might justly provoke the manifestations of His divine displeasure; of seeking His merciful forgiveness and His assistance in the great duties of repentance and amendment, and especially of offering fervent supplications that in the present season of calamity and war He would take the American people under His peculiar care and protection; that He
would guide their public councils, animate their patriotism, and bestow His blessing on their arms; that He would inspire all nations with a love of justice and of concord and with a reverence for the unerring precept of our holy religion to do to others as they would require that others should do to them; and, finally, that, turning the hearts of our enemies from the violence and injustice which sway their councils against us, He would hasten a restoration of the blessings of peace.
Given at Washington, the 9th day of July, A.D. 1812.
Proclamation, November 16, 1814.
Alternate source: James D. Richardson, editor. A Compilation of the Messages and Papers of the Presidents. Volume 1 of 11.
Part 4: James Madison, March 4, 1809 to March 4, 1817. Project Gutenberg.
BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES
The two Houses of the National Legislature having by a joint resolution expressed their desire that in the present time of public calamity and war a day may be recommended to be observed by the people of the United States as a day of public humiliation and fasting and of prayer to Almighty God for the safety and welfare of these States, His blessing on their arms, and a speedy restoration of peace, I have deemed it proper by this proclamation to recommend that Thursday, the 12th of January next, be set apart as a day on which all may have an opportunity of voluntarily offering at the same time in their respective religious assemblies their humble adoration to the Great Sovereign of the Universe, of confessing their sins and transgressions, and of strengthening their vows of repentance and amendment. They will be invited by the same solemn occasion to call to mind the distinguished favors conferred on the American people in the general health which has been enjoyed, in the abundant fruits of the season, in the progress of the arts instrumental to their comfort, their prosperity, and their
security, and in the victories which have so powerfully contributed to the defense and protection of our country, a devout thankfulness for all which ought to be mingled with their supplications to the Beneficent Parent of the Human Race that He would be graciously pleased to pardon all their offenses against Him; to support and animate them in the discharge of their respective duties; to continue to them the precious advantages flowing from political institutions so auspicious to their
safety against dangers from abroad, to their tranquillity at home, and to their liberties, civil and religious; and that He would in a special manner preside over the nation in its public councils and constituted authorities, giving wisdom to its measures and success to its arms in maintaining its rights and in overcoming all hostile designs and attempts against it; and, finally, that by inspiring the enemy with dispositions favorable to a just and reasonable peace its blessings may be speedily and happily restored.
Given at the city of Washington, the 16th day of November, 1814, and of the Independence of the United States the thirty-eighth.
Proclamation, March 4, 1815.
Alternate source: James D. Richardson, editor. A Compilation of the Messages and Papers of the Presidents. Volume 1 of 11. Part 4: James Madison, March 4, 1809 to March 4, 1817. Project Gutenberg.
BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.
The Senate and House of Representatives of the United States have by a joint resolution signified their desire that a day may be recommended to be observed by the people of the United States with religious solemnity as a day of thanksgiving and of devout acknowledgments to Almighty God for His great goodness manifested in restoring to them the blessing of peace.
No people ought to feel greater obligations to celebrate the goodness of the Great Disposer of Events and of the Destiny of Nations than the people of the United States. His kind providence originally conducted them to one of the best portions of the dwelling place allotted for the great family of the human race. He protected and cherished them under all the difficulties and trials to which they were exposed in their early days. Under His fostering care their habits, their sentiments, and their pursuits prepared them for a transition in due time to a state of independence and self-government. In the arduous struggle by which it was attained they were distinguished by multiplied tokens of His benign interposition. During the interval which succeeded He reared them into the strength and endowed them with the resources which have enabled them to assert their national rights and to enhance their national character in another arduous conflict, which is now so happily terminated by a peace and reconciliation with those who have been our enemies. And to
the same Divine Author of Every Good and Perfect Gift we are indebted for all those privileges and advantages, religious as well as civil, which are so richly enjoyed in this favored land.
It is for blessings such as these, and more especially for the
restoration of the blessing of peace, that I now recommend that the second Thursday in April next be set apart as a day on which the people of every religious denomination may in their solemn assemblies unite their hearts and their voices in a freewill offering to their Heavenly Benefactor of their homage of thanksgiving and of their songs of praise.
Given at the city of Washington on the 4th day of March, A.D. 1815, and of the Independence of the United States the thirty-ninth.
Philosopher and mathematician. Read more about Bishop Madison here. Scroll to the bottom of the page
Orators of the American Revolution. 2nd Edition. New York: Baker and Scribner, 1848. xv, -456 pp. front., ports. 19 cm. Contents: The battle-fields of early American eloquence.--James Otis, orator of intrepid passion.--Samuel Adams, last of the Puritans.--Josiah Quincy, orator of refined enthusiasm.--John Hancock, dignified cavalier of liberty.--Joseph Warren, type of our martial eloquence.--John Adams, orator of blended enthusiasm and sobriety.--Patriotic piety of '76.--Patrick Henry, the incarnation of revolutionary zeal.--Richard Henry Lee, the polished statesman.--Alexander Hamilton, the master of political sagacity.--Fisher Ames, orator of genius and elaborate beauty.--William Pinkney, the accomplished counsellor.--William Wirt, the elegant advocate.--Thomas Addis Emmet, the orator of deep feeling.--John Randolph, the impersonation of sarcasm.
The Eloquence of the Colonial Times, with sketches of early American statesmen and patriots. Delivered before the New England Society of Cincinnati. Cincinnati, Derby, Bradley & Co., 1847. 96 pp. 19 cm.
Living Orators in America. New York, Baker and Scribner, 1849. 3 pp. l., v-ix, 462 pp. front., ports. 19 cm. Daniel Webster, the logician.--Edward Everett, the rhetorician.--Henry Clay, the politician.--John C. Calhoun, the metaphysician.--George McDuffle, the impetuous.--Lewis Cass, the courteous.--Thomas H. Benton, the magisterial.--William C. Preston, the inspired declaimer.--Thomas Corwin, the natural orator.
Republican Christianity, or, True Liberty, as exhibited in the life, precepts, and early disciples of the Great Redeemer. Cincinnati: David Anderson,
1849. 422 pp. Also here.
Westward Empire; or, The Great drama of human progress. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1856. xviii, 445 pp.
Proverbs for the People; or, Illustrations of practical godliness drawn from the Book of wisdom. Boston: Gould, Kendall and Lincoln, 1849. 272 pp. 20 cm.
Maier, Paul L.
Russell H. Seibert Professor of Ancient History at Western Michigan University. Read more about Maier here, here, and here.
The James Ossuary. Reprinted with permission from The Lutheran Witness, January 2003.
The Mystery of the Missing Body. This story appeared in the April 2007 Lutheran Witness.
Maier on the secular theories of the empty tomb: "Other, even more fanciful flights of the imagination could be listed. But all these 'explanations' have three things in common: They all are illogical, raising more problems than they solve, and are easily disproven; they all contradict crucial points of evidence in the Resurrection accounts; and they all posit a missing body, an empty tomb."
... "The circumstantial evidence for the empty tomb is overpowering. It deals with the question: 'Where did Christianity first begin?'
"To this the answer must be: 'Christianity and its core proclamation of Jesus' resurrection could only have arisen at one spot on earth--the city of Jerusalem.' But this is the very last place it could have originated if the decomposing body of Jesus of Nazareth were still inside Joseph's tomb for all to see. That would immediately have snuffed out the flame of an incipient Christianity whose central claim was Jesus' resurrection!"
..."Accordingly, if all the evidence is weighed carefully and fairly--and using the canons of historical research--one cannot but conclude that the sepulcher of Joseph of Arimathea in which Jesus was buried on Friday was truly empty on the following Sunday morning. And no shred of evidence has yet been discovered anywhere that would disprove this statement."
Christianity explained and vindicated: A Guide to doubters, by "Orielensis." London, 1875. (8vo).
"How then could He create Evil? I reply again, 'He did not.' Evil was a contingent result of His creation of any moral being. No one created as a could be otherwise than free to stand, or free to fall. This is the inevitable consequence of being such. Hence, if such beings were created the contingency of their choosing to fall must exist. This, of course, was foreseen.
"But, even to our limited capacities, it is evident that the, to us, innumerable material worlds which have been created would be all but wasted if no beings were created with faculties which could fully enjoy their exquisite beauty and their order."
Marshall, Edward P.
A Treatise upon Baptist Church Jurisprudence, or, The Common law of the gospel, critically and scientifically considered: illustrating the written and unwritten laws of true apostolic church government, being a discussion of the principal questions incident to the government and polity of Baptist churches. Washington, D.C., 1898. 557 pp.
The Biblical repository and classical review, Volume 6. 1850 pp. 762-763.
The Bible And Civil Government, in a course of Lectures, by J. M. Mathews, D. D. New York: Carter & Brothers, 1850. We regard these lectures by Dr. Mathews as a most valuable contribution to the means of Biblical learning. They are five in number, and embrace the following topics: 1. Introductory Lecture, showing how fitly it corresponds with the goodness of God, that He should give to the world a distinct revelation on the subject of Civil Government; 2. Civil Government as ordained in the Commonwealth of the Hebrews; 3. Influence of Emigration on National Character; 4. General and Sound Education indispensable to Civil Freedom; 5. Agriculture as an Auxiliary to Civil Freedom. The general subject of the whole discussion, as announced by the Author himself in his first lecture, is The Connection between the Holy Scriptures and the Science of Civil Government; a subject full of interest to all classes of readers, but far less generally understood than it deserves to be. Dr. Mathews writes upon it with thorough scholarship and learning. His principles are solid and just, and his inferences philosophically drawn. In these days of sciolism and semi-infidelity, when we are flooded with a spring-tide of transcendental essays and soi-disant scientific lectures, and when a suicidal hand is attacking the Old Testament as the stronghold of war, slavery, and despotism, it is refreshing to hear a bold and manly voice, and to see a strong and vigorous arm raised in defence of that Venerable Record as the fountain, not only of all that is true and precious in religion, but of all that is wise, just, noble, dignified, compassionate, liberal, free, and comprehensive in government. Dr. Mathews has produced a book, which ought to be in the library of every divine, every statesman, every lawyer, every scholar, every friend of free and popular government, and, we will add, of every Sabbath-school and every Common-school in the land.
The Bible and Civil Government. The American Whig Review, Pages 93-646; pp. 511-518.
He thinks, and we certainly concur in the opinion, that, when nations had begun to multiply on the earth, the Most High revealed his will respecting the origin and tenure of authority in a State. When he delivered his people out of Egyptian bondage, he forgot not their welfare as a nation, while he guided their faith as a church. He formed the Hebrews into a true commonwealth, and gave them laws and institutions embracing all the essential features of national freedom, or of a well-ordered republic. This religions aspect of the subject greatly enhances its claim upon our attention. How common an error it is, even in our day and country, to suppose that liberty was cradled in Greece, and that her sages were its fathers. This error is taught to our youth in the halls of learning, and proclaimed to our people from the halls of legislation. Our author holds a different doctrine. He believes that we must look beyond Athens or Sparta for the origin of a blessing so deeply interwoven with the welfare of man. He believes that it was not the wisdom of Greece, in the halls of the Acropolis, but the wisdom of God, speaking from heaven, through his servant Moses, which first taught how the rights of a people should be asserted and sustained. We heartily subscribe to this view, and cordially tender our thanks to Dr. Mathews for the distinct and emphatic enunciation which he has made of it. We trust that his book will go far towards correcting a mistake alike dishonoring to revelation and discreditable to our intelligence as a nation. Liberty to the masses, political and social equality, general competence and contentment, physical comfort, case of mind, repose and opportunity for reflection, moral and religious instruction to all men equally, --these were the paramount objects of the Hebrew Constitution, so far as its political relations were concerned. These features mark its kindred to our own, and set it widely apart and distinct from all other governments which existed with it and for many ages after it. Nothing can be wider of the truth than the idea, that it is in the political forms and usages of the Grecian and Roman commonwealths we are to seek the origin and elements of our own republican institutions. It is rather in that admirable frame of government, given by the oracle of Jehovah and established by the authority of the Supreme Ruler of the world, that we shall find the type and model of our own Constitution. Even the Declaration of American Independence,--that glorious charter of human freedom, which first sent forth its piercing tones from the State Ilouse in Philadelphia, and whose far-reaching reverberations have "troubled the thoughts" of many a tyrant, and caused "his knees to smite one against the other," the Declaration of Independence, we say, the pride of our own country, the terror of despots, and the animating pledge of liberty to the oppressed of every clime, was but an echo from the deep thunders of Mount Sinai.
The leading design of our author, in his whole treatise, is to demonstrate the divine origin of civil freedom. His Introductory Lecture is chiefly taken up with showing how fitly it corresponds with the uniform goodness of God, that He should give to the world a distinct revelation of his will on this subject. This point is treated very effectively. "The commandment," says the Psalmist, that is, the divine revelation, "is exceeding broad." There is, as Dr. Mathews truly observes, an expansive power
in the Bible, which reaches eveiy want and condition in life. It not only states great principles in the simplest and most intelligible forms; but it also teaches how these principles may be applied to the various relations, domestic, social, and political, which God has ordained for the well-being of society.
... First, "government by representation, the election of rulers by the ruled, the public officers chosen by the public voice." Of so much importance did the celebrated Chateaubriand regard this principle, that he classed it among " three or four discoveries that have created another universe." Dr. Mathews traces the origination of this great principle up to the inspired legislation of Moses. In this view, from an examination of the subject by no means narrow or slight, we fully coincide. The Reverend Doctor goes into an elaborate and conclusive argument, in which, however, our limits forbid us to follow him, to prove that the Jethronian judges or prefects were elected by the popular vote. He also contends that the twelve spies, the thirty-six men to survey and divide the land among the tribes, the Judges who succeeded Moses in the chief magistracy, and even the earlier kings, were chosen to their respective offices by the voice of the people, or of representatives acting in their name. The conclusion to which he comes, from his entire argument ou this point, is, that "the government was, in every just sense, a government of the people. The magistrate was chosen by the suffrages of those among whom he was to act; and at the same time well-known integrity and competency were the only qualifications required for any station, from the lowest to the highest. Authority, whether ordinary or extraordinary, emanated from those on whose behalf it was to be employed. After what forms elections may have been conducted, how nearly or remotely resembling those adopted in modern elective governments, are inquiries of small moment. They do not affect the position, that the officer held his office from an acknowledged constituency, and that his constituents were those over whom and among whom his authority was exercised."
A second element of civil liberty, which, according to our author, was incorporated into the Hebrew Constitution, was that of " a Judiciary providing for the prompt and equal administration of justice between man and man." Courts of various grades were established, from high courts of appeal down to those ordained for every town. Care was taken that, in suits and proceedings at law, every man should have what was just and equal, without going far to seek it, without waiting long to obtain it, and without paying an exorbitant price for it. Dr. Mathews refers to such jurists and scholars as Hale, Hooker, Blackstone, Jones, Goguet, Grotius, Michaelis, Ames, Marshall, Story, and Kent, as having expressed the opinion that " there is not a civilized nation, of either ancient or modem times, which has not borrowed from the laws of Moses whatever is most essential to the administration of justice between man and man, or between nation and nation. The rules of evidence in conducting trials, the principles upon which verdicts should be rendered both in civil and criminal cases, together with the great institution of trial by jury, are all found, in greater or less development, in the statutes and ordinances given by God to the Hebrews."
The Bible and Civil Government. The American Review, Volume 12, Wiley and Putnam, 1850, pp. 511-518.
The work, whose title we have placed al the head of this article, contains a series ol five Lectures, delivered by the Rev. Dr. Mathews in the Capitol, at Washington city, during the winter of 1848. The Lectures were given, we believe, on the invitation of many distinguished members of both Houses of the American Congress, and were largely attended by the representative intelligence and wisdom of the nation. They attracted a large share of attention, and excited no little interest, at the time of their delivery. The desire was awakened in many minds to see them hi print; and in compliance with numerous solicitations from distinguished sources, the learned and accomplished author has at length committed them to the press."
... Our author makes two points in his argument on the antecedent probability of a distinct revelation from heaven concerning civil society and government The first is, the necessity of a well-adjusted civil constitution to men's domestic enjoyments; and the second, the influence of freedom on those higher faculties of man which reach beyond his social pleasures. The first of these points he illustrates by a graphic picture of the manifold oppressions, under which not the Israelites only, but all nations, were suffering at the time of the exode ; the liberty, the happiness, and even the lives of the million being subject to the will of the one man who happened to wear the crown, and who, intoxicated with irresponsible power, ruled over men as over the beasts of the field. The inference is, that it well became Him, whose tender mercies are over all his works, to show how the government of a nation should be constituted so as most effectually to guard against such terrible evils."
... "From his exposition of the Civil Government of the Hebrews, Dr. Mathews derives several highly important practical inferences. It would be interesting and instructive to accompany him through this part of the discussion, but want of space forbids. To one only of his valuable lessons can we for a moment direct the reader's attention. It is this: As civil liberty originated in revelation, by revelation alone can it be sustained. As there can be no divorce between light and the sun, so can there be none between freedom and the Bible. Burn the Bible,' and liberty perishes with it. Just in proportion as it is known and reverenced in a nation, in the same proportion will a rational and regulated liberty, with its long and rich train of blessings, prevail in it. Everywhere and at all times, this divine book has been the efficient agency to build up, bless, and humanize society; to dignify and adorn social life; and to vindicate true liberty, while restraining licentiousness."
... "A second element of civil liberty, which, according to our author, was incorporated into the Hebrew Constitution, was that of "a Judiciary providing for the prompt and equal administration of justice between man and man." Courts of various grades were established, from high courts of appeal down to those ordained for every town. Care was taken that, in suits and proceedings at law, every man should have what was just and equal, without going far to seek it, without waiting long to obtain it, and without paying an exorbitant price for it, Dr. Mathews refers to such jurists and scholars as Hale, Hooker, Blackstone, Jones, Goguet, Grotius, Michaelis, Ames, Marshall, Story, and Kent, as having expressed the opinion that "there is not a civilized nation, of either ancient or modern times, which has not borrowed from the laws of Moses whatever is most essential to tbs administration of justice between man and man, or between nation and nation. The rules of evidence in conducting trials, the principles upon which verdicts should be rendered both in civil and criminal cases, together with the great institution of trial by jury, are all found, in greater or less development, in the statutes and ordinance given by God to the Hebrews."
Patent attorney and author. Read more about Mauro here.
Personal Testimony. I have learned, in a word, that the redemption that is in Christ Jesus covers and meets all the consequences of sin whether manifested in soul, or mind, or body. Our salvation is of the Lord and is for the whole man, "spirit, soul and body." "Believe on the Lord Jesus Christ and thou shalt be saved, and thy house" Acts 16:31.
The Snare Broken: A Thanksgiving-discourse, preached at the desire of the West Church in Boston, N.E. Friday May 23, 1766. Occasioned by the repeal of the stamp-act. Dedicated to William Pitt, Earl of Chatham. [Three lines from St. Paul]. The Second Edition. Boston: Re-printed and sold by R. & S. Draper, in Newbury-Street ; Edes & Gill, in Queen-Street; and T. & J. Fleet, in Cornhill, 1766. viii, 52 pp.; 21 cm. (8vo)
The Resurrection Factor - Part 1. Now the basis of the resurrection and the importance of it is given by the apostle Paul. In 1 Corinthians 15, verses 13 to 17, Paul wrote, 'But if there is no resurrection of the dead, not even Christ has been raised and if Christ has not been raised then our preaching is vain. Your faith also is vain. Moreover, we are even found to be false witnesses of God because we witnessed against God that He raised Christ, whom He did not raise, if in fact, the dead are not raised, for if the dead are not raised, not even Christ has been raised, and if Christ has not been raised, your faith is worthless'. What the apostle Paul does here is base everything that Christ taught, lived and died for upon the resurrection. That's why it is so crucial to study it and come to understand it.
The skeptic, Dr. David Frederick Strauss, made this point about how critical the resurrection is as a skeptic, not a believer. He said, 'The resurrection is a touchstone, not of only the life of Jesus, but of Christianity itself'. He says, 'It touches Christianity to the quick and is decisive for the whole view of Christianity'. [Strauss. New Life of Jesus, i. pp. 41, 397.]
Everything that Jesus taught, lived, and died for depended upon one thing: His resurrection, His burial, His ascent -- His resurrection and then His ascension. My conclusion was, if I can show that Christ did not rise from the dead then my case was one against Christianity, but I was not able to do it and I'm going to share with you some of the reasons why in these sessions that we will have together.
Evidences of Christianity. Cincinnati: Standard Pub. Co.,
1886. viii, 186, vi, 223 pp.; 23 cm. Download PDF here. pt. 1. Integrity of the New Testament text.-- pt. 2. Genuineness of the New Testament books.-- pt. 3. Credibility of the New Testament books.-- pt. 4. Inspiration of the New Testament books.
McGrath, Alister Edgar
(Born January 23, 1953)
British/Irish theologian, priest, intellectual historian, scientist, and Christian apologist. Professor of Theology, Ministry and Education, and Head of the Centre for Theology, Religion and Culture at King's College, London. Beginning April 1, 2014, Andreas Idreos Professor in Science and Religion in the Faculty of Theology and Religion at Oxford University. Read about McGrath here.
I believe in the God who is made known and made available through Jesus-that is, a personal God who I believe knows me as an individual, cares for me, and enables and inspires me to live my life with a firm sense of purpose and a deep satisfaction in the service of others. That situates me within the generous parameters of Christianity.
... Atheism, I began to realize, rested on a less-than-satisfactory evidential basis. The arguments that had once seemed bold, decisive, and conclusive increasingly turned out to be circular, tentative, and uncertain. The opportunity to talk with Christians about their faith revealed to me that I understood relatively little about their religion, which I had come to know chiefly through not-always-accurate descriptions by its leading critics, including British logician Bertrand Russell and German social philosopher Karl Marx. I also began to realize that my assumption of the automatic and inexorable link between the natural sciences and atheism was rather naïve and uninformed. One of the most important things I had to sort out, after my conversion to Christianity, was the systematic uncoupling of this bond. Instead, I would see the natural sciences from a Christian perspective-and I would try to understand why others did not share this perspective.
... To this day, I have never seen the sciences and religion as being fundamentally opposed to each other. As an historian, I am fully aware of important tensions and battles, usually the result of specific social conditions (such as the professionalization of science in late Victorian England) or the unwise overstatements of both scientists and theologians. Yet I judge that their relationship is generally benign, and always intellectually stimulating. My Christian faith brings me a deepened appreciation of the natural sciences, and although I am no longer active in primary scientific research, I keep up my reading in the fields that interest and excite me most: evolutionary biology, theoretical physics, biochemistry, and biophysics.
January 22, 2014, 6:00pm, St Mary-le-Bow, Cheapside, Oxford. 2014 Boyle lecture.
A third habit of thought that I picked up during my time as a scientist is related to this. The core question that many of my philosophical colleagues want to ask about an idea is this: "Is it reasonable?" I have always baulked at this. This seems to be a sure-fire way of locking us into some form of rationalism, which allows reason to determine what can be right, and thus imprisons the scientific enterprise within a rationalist straitjacket. The fundamental question a scientist is going to ask is not "Is this reasonable?" but "What are the reasons for thinking this is true?" We cannot lay down in advance what "rationality" is characteristic of the universe; we have to find out by letting the universe tell us, or figuring out ways of uncovering it.
Scientific rationality is thus best thought of as something that is discovered, rather than predetermined or predicted. In my first year studying chemistry at Oxford, I specialized in quantum theory, and soon realized that I had to learn to conform my own thinking to the nature of the universe, rather than tell the universe what form it should take, based on what seemed to me to be "reasonable". I exaggerate slightly, but we might suggest that rationalism tells the universe what it ought to be like, whereas science allows the universe to answer back? and listens to it.
... The whole issue of making sense of reality is deeply embedded within both the natural sciences and the Christian faith. Indeed, if I might offer a personal perspective, one factor that led me decisively away from my youthful atheism to Christianity was my growing realization that the Christian faith made far more sense of what I saw around me and experienced within me than its atheist alternatives. I gladly endorse C. S. Lewis's statement, now inscribed on his memorial stone in Poet?s Corner, Westminster Abbey: "I believe in Christianity as I believe that the Sun has risen, not only because I see it, but because by it I see everything else."
Yet there is more to Christianity than making sense of things. We can hardly overlook its emphasis on the existentially transformative nature of salvation, nor the rich experience of beauty and awe, which is so often evoked in Christian worship. Yet the fact remains the intellectual capaciousness of faith cannot be overlooked. As the Harvard psychologist William James suggested many years ago, religious faith is basically "faith in the existence of an unseen order of some kind in which the riddles of the natural order may be found and explained."
"From the grave to the sky" is not correct. Posted August 31, 2013.
Abstract: I flipped on Christian radio the other day and heard just a snippet of this one and turned it back off. The snippet I heard was "from the cross to the grave, from the grave to the sky. Lord, we lift your name on high."
It suddenly struck me that in reaching for a rhyme there the lyricist has said something that is just not true. Jesus most certainly did not go from the grave to the sky. He rose again the third day and spent the next forty days on earth with his disciples, offering them what Luke calls "many infallible proofs" of his truly being risen from the dead. Only then did he ascend into heaven. That's why the Feast of the Ascension is forty days after Easter.
Far from the kingdom. Posted November 13, 2013. Response to an atheist addressing the question, "What if I'm wrong?"
An Army of Tentmakers. Posted December 9, 2013.
Abstract: I believe that we need an army of tentmakers. If you have a job or a marketable skill, for heaven's sake (literally), don't quit that job and join the ranks of starving students. Keep your day job, but enrich your mind and prepare yourself to answer people's questions about Christianity by studying on your own time. If you have entrepreneurial abilities and the capital, start a business. That will support not only yourself but others you employ, and if successful, you will have more money to give to Christian ministries.
A Gospel Fictionalization Theory is No Help to the Gospel. Posted February 4, 2016. Abstract: "Dr. Michael Licona is an apologist and New Testament scholar who shook up the evangelical world several years ago by simultaneously claiming to be an Biblical inerrantist and stating that Matthew added the short passage about the opening of the graves and the resurrection of various other people at the time of Jesus' crucifixion as a 'poetic device'."
Video presentation. Undesigned Coincidences. Posted March 29, 2016. Sponsored by Ratio Christi at Western Michigan University.
Early Citations of the Four Gospels and Other 'Gospels'. Adapted from Glenn Davis here. "The ... chart is adapted from one created by Glenn Davis, which may be found at http://www.ntcanon.org. It shows the citations (or lack thereof) for our four Gospels in seventeen early authorities, and, for comparison, the same information for eight non-canonical 'Gospels.' The seventeen early authorities are, in order, Clement of Rome, Ignatius, Polycarp, Marcion (early heretic), Valentinus and his followers (early heretic), Justin Martyr, Irenaeus, Clement of Alexandria, the Muratorian Canon, Tertullian, Origin, Eusebius, Codex Sinaiticus, Athenasius of Alexandria, Didymus the Blind, the Peshitta (a Syriac translation of the scriptures), and the Vulgate (a Latin translation)."
Who Wrote the Gospels?. YouTube presentation. Powerpoint here. January 12, 2012. Audio here. Who wrote the Gospels? Are there good reasons to attribute their authorship to Matthew, Mark, Luke and John? In this talk, Dr. Timothy McGrew lays out the case for the traditional authorship of the Gospels, while countering Bart Ehrman's claims that the Gospels are forgeries. This is one hour of content followed by twenty minutes of Q&A. Summary by Rodi.
External Evidence for the Truth of the Gospels. YouTube presentation. Powerpoint here. St. Michael Lutheran Church, February 13, 2012. Dr. Timothy McGrew maps out the external and internal evidence bearing on the authenticity of the Gospels and explores some of the positive external evidence for their truthfulness. These include non-Christian sources and incidental historical confirmations. This is one hour of content followed by thirty minutes of Q&A.
Internal Evidence for the Truth of the Gospels. YouTube presentation. Powerpoint here. St. Michael Lutheran Church, February 27, 2012. Handout. Dr. Timothy McGrew presents internal evidence bearing on the authenticity of the Gospels, with a special emphasis on undesigned coincidences in the Gospel accounts. This is about 45 minutes of content followed by fifteen minutes of Q&A.
The Resurrection of Jesus. YouTube presentation. Powerpoint here. St. Michael Lutheran Church, April 9, 2012. Uploaded April 18, 2012. Handout. In this lecture, Dr. Timothy McGrew present a case for the resurrection of Jesus based upon five facts found in the Gospels. He evaluated other competing hypotheses, showing that the resurrection alone accounts for all the historical data. This is about 45 minutes of content followed by fifteen minutes of Q&A.
Alleged Historical Errors in the Gospels: Matthew and Mark. YouTube presentation. Powerpoint here. St. Michael Lutheran Church, May 21, 2012. Uploaded May 29, 2012. Handout. Dr. Timothy McGrew critiques seven of the strongest objections to the historical reliability of the Gospels of Mark and Matthew. This is about 55 minutes of content followed by roughly fifteen minutes of Q&A.
Alleged Historical Errors in the Gospels: Luke and John. YouTube presentation. Powerpoint here. St. Michael Lutheran Church, June 11, 2012. Uploaded June 26, 2012. Handout. Dr. Timothy McGrew critiques the strongest objections to the historical reliability of the Gospels of Luke and John. This is about 55 minutes of content followed by roughly thirty minutes of Q&A.
Alleged Contradictions in the Gospels, Part 1. YouTube presentation. Powerpoint here. St. Michael Lutheran Church, July 16, 2012. Uploaded July 31, 2012. Handout. Dr. Timothy McGrew explores and answers 7 alleged contradictions between the Gospels. This is about 60 minutes of content followed by fifteen minutes of Q&A.
Alleged Contradictions in the Gospels, Part 2. YouTube presentation. Powerpoint here. St. Michael Lutheran Church, August 20, 2012. Uploaded September 5, 2012. Handout. Dr. Timothy McGrew explores a litany of 9 alleged contradictions in the Gospels. This is about 60 minutes of content followed by a short Q&A.
Science, Doubt, and Miracles. Enrichment Journal. "Christians need make no apology for opposing naturalism, whatever alias it may be using. Science, properly understood, will tell us the limits of nature. But it will never tell us that nothing lies beyond those limits."
Exclusive Interiew | Dr. Timothy McGrew, PhD. The Nathan Report. Posted July 29, 2014.
The idea that modern scientific evidence undermines belief in God is a curious one. I think it must be connected to the idea that those who believe in God do so because they attribute every gap in their understanding of the universe to the direct agency of God. But does anyone really do this? Science is good at closing some gaps (say, in molecular biology, where the problems are very difficult but some of them are tractable) and not so good at closing others (for example, the problem of the relation between matter and consciousness). So yes, it can be reasonable to entertain the idea that the existence of God may be the best explanation for something, and doing so does not commit one to invoking direct divine action to answer every unsolved problem in every field.
I believe in the existence of God because I think that the existence of God is, on the whole, the best explanation for all of our evidence, scientific, historical, and experiential. As you might imagine, unpacking that case gets one into a great deal of detail very quickly!
On the Historical Accuracy of the Book of Acts. Posted October 8, 2015. "Here are some of the details that Luke gets right in Acts that cannot be derived from Josephus. Most of these can be found in Colin Hemer's magisterial work, The Book of Acts in the Setting of Hellenistic History."
1. A natural crossing between correctly named ports. (Acts 13:4-5) Mt. Casius, which is south of Seleucia, is within sight of Cyprus.
2. The proper port (Perga) along the direct destination of a ship crossing from Cyprus (13:13)
3. The proper location of Iconium in Phrygia rather than in Lycaonia. (14:6) This identification was doubted because it challenges some sources reflecting boundary changes from a different date, but the ethnic inclusion of Iconium in Phrygia is confirmed by the geographical distribution of Neo-Phrygian texts and onomastic study.
4. The highly unusual but correct heteroclitic declension of the name Lystra. (14:6) This is paralleled in Latin documents.
5. The Lycaonian language spoken in Lystra. (14:11) This was unusual in the cosmopolitan, Hellenized society in which Paul moved. But the preservation of the local language is attested by a gloss in Stephanus of Byzantium, who explains that "Derbe" is a local word for "juniper." Hemer lists many other native names in the Lystra district.
6. Two gods known to be so associated--Zeus and Hermes. (14:12) These are paralleled epigraphically from Lystra itself, and the grouping of the names of Greek divinities is peculiarly characteristic of the Lystra district.
7. The proper port, Attalia, which returning travelers would use. (14:25) This was a coasting port, where they would go to intercept a coasting vessel, by contrast with Perga (13:13), a river port.
8. The correct order of approach (Derbe and then Lystra) from the Cilician Gates. (16:1; cf. 15:41)
9. The form of the name "Troas," which was current in the first century. (16:8)
10. The place of a conspicuous sailors? landmark, Samothrace, dominated by a 5000 foot mountain. (16:11)
11. The proper description of Philippi as a Roman colony, and the correct identification of its seaport as Nea Polis, which is attested both in manuscripts and in numismatic evidence. (16:12)
12. The right location of the Gangites, a small river near Philippi. (16:13)
13. The identification of Thyatira as a center of dyeing. (16:14) This is attested by at least seven inscriptions of the city.
14. The proper designation for the magistrates of the colony as strategoi (16:22), following the general term archontes in v. 19.
15. The proper locations (Amphipolis and Apollonia, cities about 30 miles apart) where travelers would spend successive nights on this journey to Thessalonica. (17:1)
16. The presence of a synagogue in Thessalonica. (17:1) This is attested by a late 2nd AD inscription. (CIJ 693)
17. The proper term ("politarchs") used of the magistrates in Thessalonica. (17:6) See Horsley's article in the Anchor Bible Dictionary, in loc.
18. The correct implication that sea travel is the most convenient way of reaching Athens, with the favoring "Etesian" winds of the summer sailing season. (17:14-15)
19. The abundant presence of images in Athens. (17:16)
20. The reference to a synagogue in Athens. (17:17) See CIJ 712-15.
21. The depiction of philosophical debate in the Agora, which was characteristic of Athenian life. (17:17)
22. The use of the correct Athenian slang word for Paul (spermologos, "seed picker," 17:18) as well as for the court (Areios pagos, "the hill of Ares," 17:19)
23. The proper characterization of the Athenian character. (17:21) This, however, might be attributed to common knowledge.
24. An altar to an "unknown god." (17:23) Such altars are mentioned by Pausanias and Diogenes Laertius. Note also the aptness of Paul?s reference to ?temples made with hands, (17:24), considering that Paul was speaking in a location dominated by the Parthenon and surrounded by other shrines of the finest classical art.
25. The proper reaction of Greek philosophers, who denied the bodily resurrection. (17:32) See the words of Apollo in Aeschylus, Eumenides 647-48.
26. The term "Areopagites," derived from areios pagos, as the correct title for a member of the court. (17:34)
27. The presence of a synagogue at Corinth. (18:4) See CIJ 718.
28. The correct designation of Gallio as proconsul, resident in Corinth. (18:12) This reference nails down the time of the events to the period from the summer of 51 to the spring of 52.
29. The bema (judgment seat), which overlooks Corinth's forum. (18:16ff.)
30. The name "Tyrannus," which is attested from Ephesus in first-century inscriptions. (19:9)
31. The shrines and images of Artemis. (19:24) Terracotta images of Artemis (=Diana) abound in the archaeological evidence.
32. The expression "the great goddess Artemis," a formulation attested by inscriptions at Ephesus. (19:27)
33. The fact that the Ephesian theater was the meeting place of the city. (19:29) This is confirmed by inscriptional evidence dating from AD. 104. (See OGIS 480.8-9.)
34. The correct title "grammateus" for the chief executive magistrate in Ephesus. (19:35) This is amply attested in inscriptional evidence.
35. The proper title of honor "neokoros," commonly authorized by the Romans for major cities that possessed an official temple of the imperial cult. (19:35) See Wankel, Die Inschriften von Ephesus, 300.
36. The term "he theos," the formal designation of the goddess. (19:37) See the Salutaris document, passim.
37. The proper term ("agoraioi hemerai") for the assizes, those holding court under the proconsul. (19:38)
38. The use of the plural "anthupatoi," (19:38), which is either a remarkable coincidence of expression or else a deliberate reference to the fact that at that precise time, the fall of AD 54, two men were conjointly exercising the functions of proconsul because their predecessor, Silanus, had been murdered. See Tacitus, Annals 13.1; Dio Cassius 61.6.4-5. This is one point where Ramsay's work has been superseded in a way that reflects great credit on Luke's accuracy.
39. The "regular" assembly, as the precise phrase is attested elsewhere. (19:39) The concept is mentioned repeatedly in the Salutaris inscription, IBM 481.339-40 = Wankel 27, lines 468-69.
40. The use of a precise ethnic designation, "Beroiaios." (20:4) This is attested in the local inscriptions.
41. The employment of the characteristic ethnic term "Asianos," meaning "Greeks in Asia." (20:4) Cf. IGRR 4.1756, where the Greeks honor a Sardian citizen with this designation (lines 113, 116).
Video presentation. How to Think About Miracles. Presentation at Hillsdale College, Michigan. Uploaded February 16, 2017. Is it ever rational to believe in miracles? Dr. Timothy McGrew, professor of philosophy at Western Michigan University, joins us today to discuss miracles, how to think about them, and if we should believe in them. Audio begins at the -48:10 mark.
American educator. Read more about McGuffey here, here, and here.
McGuffey's Fifth Eclectic Reader. Entries: XCIII. RELIGION THE ONLY BASIS OF SOCIETY. (William Ellery Channing); CXVI. THE BIBLE THE BEST OF CLASSICS. (Thomas S. Grimke); CXVII. MY MOTHER'S BIBLE. (George P. Morris)
American statesman. Signer of the United States Constitution and the namesake of Fort McHenry, the bombardment of which inspired The Star-Spangled Banner. Delegate to the Continental Congress from Maryland, and the third United States Secretary of War from January 27, 1796 to May 13, 1800, under Presidents George Washington and John Adams. Read about McHenry here, here, and here.
In 1813, James McHenry prepared an Address of the Bible Society of Baltimore to the Citizens of the State of Maryland, reprinted in the Report of the Maryland Bible Society for 1903.
McHenry: "All Christians allow that the Old and New Testaments taken together, are the only books in the world which clearly reveal the nature of God, contain a perfect law for our government, propose the most powerful persuasions to obey this law, and furnish the best motives for patience and resignation, under every circumstance and vicissitude of life. Even those writers who deny their divinity, have yet acknowledged that the matters contained in them are, at last, calculated to make mankind wiser and better. These surprising and salutary effects the scriptures have unequivocally produced, and whenever they are read and attended to, will continue to produce. Facts so fully ascertained and so clearly demonstrating the great importance of circulating the sacred writings have (within these few years past) called the attention of men more particularly to this subject, and given rise to the establishment of Societies whse object is to encourage their circulation, by promoting the printing of them in all languages, and their distribution gratis, whenever they could not be otherwise obtained."
... "[P]ublic utility pleads most forcibly for the general distribution of the Holy Scriptures. The doctrine they preach, the obligations they impose, the punishment they threaten, the rewards they promise, the stamp and image of divinity they bear, which produces a conviction of their truths, can alone secure to society, order and peace, and to our courts of justice and constitutions of government, purity, stability and usefulness. In vain, without the Bible, we increase penal laws and draw entrenchments around our institutions. Bibles are strong entrenchments. Where they abound, men cannot pursue wicked courses, and at the same time enjoy quiet conscience."
Episcopalian bishop and president of Kenyon College.
The Evidences of Christianity; in their external, or historical, division: exhibited in a course of lectures,/ by Charles Pettit McIlvaine. Revised and improved by the author, with the addition of a preface, by Olinthus Gregory. Philadelphia: Smith, English & co., 1861. Text-searchable. 408 pp. PDF version here. HTML online edition here.
(TM): McIlvaine explains that he composed these lectures on the occasion of being invited to give lectures on apologetics in New York. Like Paley and Chalmers, McIlvaine openly acknowledges his debt to Lardner; the sixth lecture gives an excellent thumbnail sketch of some of Lardner's research. Though McIlvaine did not disparage the internal evidences as Chalmers had, his work focuses exclusively on the 'external division' of the evidences--the historical evidence for the authenticity and credibility of the New Testament documents, the evidence for the resurrection, the argument from prophecy, the argument from the propagation of Christianity, and the evidence of the fruits of Christianity in the lives of its genuine disciples.
McIlvaine's work is notable not only for the thoughtful arrangement of the divisions of the argument but also for his earnest discussion of the duty of all Christians who have the means to study the evidence for their faith and the spirit in which that study should be undertaken.
Bishop M'Ilvaine's Lectures. Review of The Evidences of Christianity from The Princeton Review, January 1833, pp. 76-100. Text-searchable. This review also discusses the best apologetics literature of the period.
... "Dr. M'Ilvaine has in these lectures displayed an ingenuity, an erudition, and an eloquence, which cannot but give him a high standing with discerning and impartial judges, among American authors. Before this, the public was well acquainted with Dr. M'Ilvaine as an eloquent and evangelical preacher, but we are inclined to think that few of his friends, even of those who were best acquainted with him, were prepared to expect from his pen a work characterized as this is by cogent and ingenious reasoning. The occasion on which these lectures were delivered, and the character of the audience to whom they were originally addressed, required, that they should be in a popular style. They were addressed to several hundred young men of the city of New York, of various attainments and pursuits; and one can scarcely conceive of a more important field of usefulness for a man capable of improving it to the best advantage. We are of opinion, after reading these discourses, that a better selection of a lecturer, for such a purpose, could not have been made: delivered with the usual commanding and pleasing eloquence of the author, it is not surprising, that they were heard with fixed and continued attention, from first to last. It is, however, often the case, that discourses delivered with every advantage of voice and action, produce an interest and impression, which are far from being realized when the same discourses are read in print; and we confess that when we heard of the success of the lecturer in fixing at tention, and creating a feeling of deep interest in his youthful audience, we did apprehend, that we should experience some disappointment in the perusal of these lectures in the closet. But this is far from being the fact. For while there is a copious ness in the style, and occasionally a repetition of the same ideas and reasonings, which were well suited to discourses actually delivered to an audience of young men; we have experienced no disappointment on the whole; but, on the contrary, our estimation of the talents and learning of the author has been raised many degrees. And after all that has been written on the evidences of divine revelation, we do not know a book better suited to the object for which these lectures were prepared, than the volume now presented to the public. It is admirably adapted to the instruction and conviction of intelligent and ingenuous youth; and might with great advantage be made a text book in our colleges, and other seminaries of learning. The only defect which it has in reference to such an object, is, that it treats only of the external evidences of revelation, whereas, a manual for colleges should comprehend the internal evidences also. But the same objection may be made to Paley and to Chalmers. Their treatises are entirely confined to a consideration of the external evidences.
"It may appear somewhat astonishing that Dr. M'Ilvaine was able, in a state of health not the most perfect, to compose, in so short a time, discourses of so much real excellence, and in which so few faults are to be found. But this will appear the less surprising, when it is considered, that as chaplain to the national military academy at West Point, it became his duty to lecture on this subject; and while at that station, he had much opportunity of being intimately acquainted with the reasonings and objections of ingenious infidels; for when he commenced his duties there, it is understood, that among the officers and students, deistical sentiments were completely predominant; so that the inculcation of the truth of divine revelation produced among some of the gentlemen of the institution a violent re-action, which brought the young chaplain into frequent and severe conflict with men who had taken much pains to fortify their minds in the firm adherence to the deistical system. This rendered it necessary that he should study the evidences of Christianity thoroughly; and it also made him fully acquainted with the grounds on which they rested their cause. It was by this means, that Dr. M'Ilvaine was prepared, at so short a notice, to compose lectures which possess so much sterling merit. And now, when infidelity is again attempting to raise her head in this
land, and especially in the city of New York, it is exceedingly gratifying to the lovers of truth, to find, that God, in his providence, has been training some men for the contest; and has, in this instance, brought upon the field one who has proved himself capable of vindicating the cause of Christianity with a force and eloquence, which, we are sure, the most powerful of its enemies can never withstand.
"It has also been a source of pleasing reflection to us, that the University of the city of New York, just commencing its career, and rising into notice, has assumed so bold a stand in favour of divine revelation; and among her earliest efforts has produced a volume, which, while it is eminently adapted to instruct the youth of that populous and rapidly increasing emporium, is, by its publication, likely to become useful to multitudes of others, both in the present and future generations. We sincerely hope that the directors and professors of this rising institution will proceed on the principles with which they have commenced. May they never be ashamed to avow that their University, is, in its constitution, essentially a Christian Institution, and "set for the defence of the Gospel." We hope, also, that what has been reported to.us as their purpose, namely, making the Bible a regular classic, will be carried into complete effect. Too long have professed Christians cast contempt and dishonour on the volume of Inspiration, by excluding it from the schnols of learning, and by exalting heathen authors above the writings of Moses and the prophets and apostles. The Bible presents the most interesting and fruitful field for the studies of our youth. Its history and biography-its antiquities and religious institutions-its poetry and wise moral maxims-its prophecies and types-and, finally, its sublime doctrines and salutary precepts, open to the ingenuous student, a rich mine of instruction, compared with which all the treasures of heathen antiquity are meager. If we are indeed Christians, let us pay due honour to our Master, in all our institutions of learning, and no longer be moved by the ridicule and scorn of infidels, whose object ever has been to banish the Bible, first from our schools, and next from the world. Providence, we believe, will cause those literary institutions to prosper, in which revealed religion is defended, and its principles inculcated. The outcry of sectarism is unworthy of our notice. Christianity is no sect. It is the religion of Heaven; the greatest blessing which the world has received; the light of life, intended to show erring men the way to heaven; and shall we put this glorious light under a bushel? We confess, that ever since we observed the prominence given to religion in this University, our hearts have been drawn towards it, and we can Bishop M'Ilvaine's Lectures. not but pray for its prosperity. If there are others, who dislike the Bible, and every thing which savours of piety, let them institute semiharies of learning of their own, into which the sun of righteousness shall never dart one cheering ray; where the Bible shall be as little known as the Koran, and within which no messenger of heaven shall ever be permitted to set his foot. Let infidel men lavish their treasures in founding such institutions. Christians need not envy them, or regret that they have no part nor lot in them. The time will come when God will vindicate the honour of his own word, and of his own servants."
American historian. Civil engineer. Read about McMaster here.
Old Standards of Public Morals. Addressed to the American Historical Association, December 26, 1905. Published in The American Historical Review, Volume 11, No. 3, 515-528. April 1906. "... Under these standards of public morals all forms of religious belief were tolerated; yet only those men who exercised this toleration in such manner as to become Protestants or Christians could be eligible to offices of state. The preaching, as it should always be, was above the practice. The moral standard, as it should always be, was far in advance of the times. To the credit of the fathers, many of them soon overtook it. When the Federal Constitution was framed in 1787, Church and State were absolutely divorced. The word 'God' was nowhere inserted, and religious belief was nowhere recognized as a qualification for anything."
Understanding the Times of Christ. Gospel Publishing House, June 1991. 117 pages. Buy this book here.
Metzger, Bruce Manning
American biblical scholar and textual critic, longtime professor at Princeton Theological Seminary and Bible editor who served on the board of the American Bible Society and United Bible Societies. He was a scholar of Greek, New Testament, and New Testament textual criticism. Read about Metzger here.
A Textual Commentary on the Greek New Testament. United Bible Societies; 2nd Revised edition, September, 2006. 696 pages. Buy this book here.
"This companion to the Greek New Testament discusses textual variations based on the critical apparatus. It contains a thorough explanation of each textual decision that appears in UBS4."
With Bart D. Ehrman. The Text of the New Testament: Its Transmission, Corruption, and Restoration. Oxford University Press, USA; 4th edition, April 15, 2005. 384 pages. Buy this book here.
Introduction to the New Testament; Translated from the fourth edition of the German, and considerably augmented with notes by Herbert Marsh. Cambridge: printed by J. Archdeacon; and sold by J. & J. Merrill, and W. H. Lunn, in Cambridge; J. Johnson, and F. & C. Rivington [and 6 others in London], 1793-1801. 4 volumes; 80. Volume 1 of 4; Volume 2 of 4; Volume 3 of 4; Volume 4 of 4. Translated from Einleitung in die göttlichen Schriften des Neuen Bundes.
Priest and publisher of theological works. Read about Migne here and here.
Démonstrations évangéliques: traduites, pour la plupart, des diverses langues dans lesquelles elles avaient été écrites, reproduites intégralement non par extraits, annotées et publiées. Paris: Chez l'editeur, 1843-1862. 20 volumes; 28 cm. The apologetic writings of over one hundred authors from every epoch of church history.
Featuring the works of Tertullien, Origene, Eusebius, S. Augustin, Montaigne, Bacon, Grotius, Descartes, Richelieu, Arnaud, De Choisul-du-Plessis-Praslin, Pascal, Pelisson, Nicole, Boyle, Bossuet, Bourdaloue, Locke, Lami, Burnet, Malebranche, Lesley, Leibnitz, La Bruyere, Fenelon, Huet, Clark, Duguet, Stanhope, Bayle, Le-Clerc, Du-Pin, Jacquelot, Tillotson, De Haller, Sherlock, Le Moine, Pope, Leland, Racine, Massillon, Ditton, Derham, D'Aguesseau, De
Polignac, Saurin, Buffier, Warburton, Tournemine, Bentley, Littleton, Fabricius, Addison, De Bernis, J. J. Rousseau, Para du Fhanjhas, Stanislas I., Turgot, Statler, West, Beauzée, Bergier, Carraccioli, Jennings, Duhamel, Liguori, Butler, Bullet, Vauvenargues, Guénard, Blair, De Pompignan, Deluc,
Porteous; Gerard, Dieesbach, Jacques, Lamourette, La Harpe, Le Coz, Duvoisin, De la Luzerne, Schmitt, Poynter, Moore, Silvio Pellico, Lingard, Brunati, Manzoni, Paley, Perrone, D'Orleans, Campien, Perennes, Wiseman, Buckland, Marcel-de-Serres, Keith, Chalmers, Dupin Ainé, S.E. Gregoire XVI.
With Edward Hawkins. An Historical View of the plea of tradition: as maintained in the Church of Rome with strictures on a dissertation upon the use and importance of unauthoritative tradition by Edward Hawkins, and an appendix containing original authorities. London: C. and J. Rivington; Dublin: R. Milliken, 1826. 102 pp.; 20 cm.
A Sermon, preached in New-York, July 4th, 1793. Being the anniversary of the independence of America: at the request of the Tammany Society, or Columbian Order. By Samuel Miller, A.M. One of the Ministers of the United Presbyterian Churches, in the city of New-York. New-York: Printed by Thomas Greenleaf, 1793. 40 pp. 20 cm. (8vo)
A Sermon, delivered in the New Presbyterian Church, New-York, July fourth, 1795, being the nineteenth anniversary of the independence of America: at the request of, and before, the Mechanic, Tammany, and Democratic Societies, and the military officers. By Samuel Miller, A.M. One of the Ministers of the United Presbyterian Churches, in the city of New-York. New-York: Printed by Thomas Greenleaf, 1795. 33,  pp. 22 cm. (8vo)
Lectures on the Philosophy of Law, Designed Mainly as an Introduction to the Study of International Law. London: Charles Griffin and Company, 1884. 431 pp. "Religion first appears to a child as the negation of sin, morality as the negation of wrong, and law as the negationof crime. This negation disappears when the individual becomes a true child of God, a conscious member of the family, and a true citizen of the state."
... "Both morality and religion afford powerful aid to law; but in order to reap that benefit to its full extent the individual subject should be free to energise to the utmost of his capacity; and, hence, in the most advanced modern states there is either concurrent endowment of all important sects, or the greatest laxity in the enforcement of the nominal creed of the national church. Without freedom morality and religion cannot flourish; without morality and religion true freedom cannot exist. 'Where the Spirit of the Lord is there is liberty.' It is, therefore, incorrect to say that morality and religion are concerns of the individual, and not of the state. No one who understands what the state is could make such as assertion. (See p. 201 supra; also Natural Religion, by the author of Ecos Home, part II, chapter iv.) Law, morality, and religion are the forces which keep society together. And society is a unity in differences -- one state or one church, for either name is applicable, composed of individuals. No other bond is possible."
Compiler. George Washington: His Christian Faith in His Own Words. 162 pp. Word document. Primary source documentation of his attendence at church and service as a Christian. Washington's writings include his recommendations for chaplains to serve in the army, his promotion of Christianity through Thanksgiving proclaimations and General Orders to his troops and in other public addresses. This essay includes testimony from his daughter, Eleanor (Nelly) Parke Custis Lewis (1779-1852) regarding Washington's religious beliefs.
Compiler. George Washington: Advocate of Prayer and Worship, in His Own Words. 58 pp. Word document. Companion piece to the above compilation, these records come from Washington's diaries, general orders as Commander-in-chief of the Continental Army, and proclamations as President of the United States. This documents his personal prayer life, and his recommendations of prayer to God for his troops, and for the American nation.
English poet. Learn more about Milton here and here
Paradise Lost. A poem, in twelve books. The author John Milton. With historical, philosophical, and explanatory notes. Translated from the French of the learned Raymond de St. Maur. A new edition, adorn'd with plates. London: printed for R. Bladon, T. Lawes, S. Crowder, C. Ware, and T. Payne, 1779. 2 vol., plates: port. 1800 edition, with the life of the author.
"God having to this end ordained his Gospel to be the revelation of his power and wisdom in Christ Jesus. And this is one depth of his wisdom, that He could so plainly reveal so great a measure of it to the gross, distorted apprehension of decayed mankind. Let others, therefore, dread and shun the Scriptures for their darkness; I shall wish I may deserve to be reckoned among those who admire and dwell upon them for their clearness.
"True religion is the true worship and service of God, learnt and believed from the Word of God only. No man or angel can know how God would be worshipped and served, unless God reveal it; he hath revealed and taught it us in the Holy Scriptures by inspired ministers, and in the Gospel by his own Son, and his Apostles, with strictest command to reject all other traditions or additions whatsoever. According to that of St. Paul, 'Though we, or an angel from heaven, preach any other gospel unto you, than that which we have preached unto you, let him be anathema, or accursed.' And, Deut. 4:2, 'Ye shall not add to the word which I command you, neither shall ye diminish aught from it.' Rev. 22: 18, 19, 'If any man shall add,' &c. 'If any man shall take away from the words,' &c. With good and religious reason therefore, all Protestant churches, with one consent, and particularly the Church of England in her Thirtynine Articles, art. 6, 19,*20, and 21, and elsewhere, maintain these two points, as the main principles of true religion; that the rule of true religion is the Word of God only; and that their faith ought not to be an implicit faith, that is, to believe, though as the church believes, against or without express authority of Scripture."
Ninth president of Southern Baptist Theological Seminary in Louisville, Kentucky. Read more about Mohler here, and his blog here.
Resurrection Essential to Christianity. Washington Post, March 24, 2008.
The literal, historical, bodily resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead is the vindication of Christ's saving work on the cross. The issue is simple -- no resurrection, no Christianity. For this reason, belief in the resurrection of Christ is essential in order to be a Christian.
The resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead is the central miracle of the Christian faith. As the New Testament reveals, the resurrection represents the Father's complete satisfaction in the obedience of the Son -- even unto death. Sin and death do not have the final word. Indeed, they are defeated through the saving work of Christ.
The resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead separates Christianity from all mere religion--whatever its form. Christianity without the literal, physical resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead is merely one religion among many. "And if Christ is not risen," said the Apostle Paul, "then our preaching is empty and your faith is in vain" [1 Corinthians 15:14]. Furthermore, "You are still in your sins!" [v. 17]. Paul could not have chosen stronger language. "If in this life only we have hope in Christ, we are of all men the most pitiable" [v. 19].
... Those who would attack the Church and reject its gospel must direct their arrows at the most crucial truth claim of the New Testament and the disciples: That Jesus Christ, having suffered death on a cross, though sinless, having borne the sins of those He came to save, having been buried in a sealed and guarded grave, was raised by the power of God on the third day.
As Paul well understood, Christianity stands or falls with the empty grave. If Christ is not raised, we are to be pitied, for our faith is in vain. Those who would preach a resurrectionless Christianity have substituted the truth of the gospel for a lie. But, asserted Paul, Christ is risen from the dead. Our faith is not in vain, but is in the risen Lord. He willingly faced death on a cross and defeated death from the grave. The Resurrection is the ultimate sign of God's vindication of His Son.
The great good news of the resurrection is this -- those who come to Christ by faith will share in His victory over sin and death. Belief in the resurrection of Christ is clearly essential in order for one to be a Christian. The Christian church has understood this from the beginning, and the Apostle Paul left no room for doubt when he declared that those who are saved are those who confess with their lips that Jesus Christ is Lord and believe in their hearts that God raised Him from the dead [Romans 10:9].
Monroe, President James
American President. Read more about President Monroe here, here and here.
Waldo, Samuel Putnam.INAUGURATION, and INAUGURAL SPEECH. The Tour of James Monroe, President of the United States. Hartford, Conn., 1819. 346 pp. Extract.
"Relying on the aid to be derived from the other departments of the government, I enter on the trust to which I have been called by the suffrages of my fellow-citizens, with my fervent prayers to the Almighty, that He will be graciously pleased to continue to us that protection which he has already so conspicuously displayed in our favour."
Waldo, Samuel Putnam.Tour of New Jersey. The Tour of James Monroe, President of the United States. Hartford, Conn., 1819. 346pp. Extract.
Contributions to the Historical Society of Montana
with its transactions, act of incorporation, constitution, ordinances, officers and members. Helena, Mont. Rocky Mountain Pub. Co. Part 1, Part 2. v. 7. Helena, Mont. [etc.], 1876-1910. 374 pp. 9 vols. Extract.
Montgomery, John Warwick
World-class Christian apologist, philosopher and legal expert. John Warwick Montgomery is Distinguished Research Professor of Philosophy and Christian Thought, Patrick Henry College (Virginia); and Emeritus Professor of Law and Humanities at the University of Luton (England). Professor Montgomery holds ten earned degrees, including the LL.B.; LL.M. from Cardiff University, Wales; the A.B. with distinction in Philosophy (Cornell University; Phi Beta Kappa); B.L.S. and M.A. (University of California at Berkeley); B.D. and S.T.M. (Wittenburg University, Springfield, Ohio); M. Phil. in Law (University of Essex, England); Ph.D. (Univeristy of Chicago), and the Doctorat d'Université from Strasbourg, France. He told Contemporary Authors, "My world-view was hammered out at university; there I became a Christian. . . . Like the late C. S. Lewis (one of my greatest heroes), I was literally dragged kicking and screaming into the Kingdom by the weight of evidence for Christian truth."
Visit The John Warwick Montgomery website and read more about Montgomery here.
Christ Our Advocate: Studies in Polemical Theology, Jurisprudence and Canon Law, by John Warwick Montgomery. Fifteen essays and four book reviews covering religion and law, social ethics, and the defence of Christian faith. Includes "Modern Theology and Contemporary Legal Theory: A Tale of Ideological Collapse," "Justice Denied: Church Property Disputes Under Current American Law," "Church Remarriage After Divorce: A Third Way," "Can Blasphemy Law Be Justified?" and "The Embryo Cloning Danger in European Context." Buy this book here.
Christianity for the Tough Minded, by John Warwick Montgomery. 296 pp. A collection of 24 essays written by scholars who share a commitment to the evangelical Christian faith. Topics include: "Philosophy and Scientific Method"; "Ethics and Society"; "Religion and Truth". Includes essays on Bertrand Russell, Julian Huxley, Franz Kafka, Herman Hess, Herbert Marcuse, and Ayn Rand. Covers the gamut of contemporary objections to the truth of Christianity. Includes cartoons! Buy this book here.
Crisis in Lutheran Theology, by John Warwick Montgomery. 347 pages. Includes essays on Biblical inerrancy, hermeneutics and the Law's third use (sanctification). By no means of limited Lutheran interest, this book provides ammunition to laymen of all denominations who are troubled by encroaching liberalism and the erosion of Biblical authority. Buy this book here.
Defending the Gospel Through the Centuries
A History of Christian Apologetics: A Study Guide, by John Warwick Montgomery. Canadian Institute for Law, Theology & Public Policy. December 1999. 95 pp. The history of apologetics, from Paul on Mars Hill to CS Lewis at Oxford. Learn how Christians have defended the faith as each age has levelled attacks upon it, and how relevant the master apologists of the past are to our contemporary witness for Christ and the Bible. Accompanies the 16-tape cassette series by the same name. Buy this book here.
Editor's Introduction. From Global Journal of Classical Theology, v. 6, n. 1, May 2007. Critique of Richard Dawkins? two U.K. programs, "The Root of All Evil?"
Evidence For Faith: Deciding the God Question,
by John Warwick Montgomery. 366 pages. The 20 papers presented at the "Cornell Symposium on Evidential Apologetics". Included are papers on the evidential approach to Christianity, cosmology, biology, biblical criticism, the historical value of the biblical documents, and the problem of evil. Especially significant is the essay "The Jury Returns: A Juridical Defense of Christianity" by the editor. "A spiritual and intellectual gold mine . . . there is no other volume like it". (Dr. J. P. Moreland, Biola University). Buy this book here.
Faith Founded on Fact, by John Warwick Montgomery. 240 pages. A provocative and controversial book intended to encourage Christians to make the case for the truthfulness of Christianity based on factual evidence. Included are chapters on "The Place of Reason in Christian Witness", "Science, Theology, and the Miraculous", "How Muslims Do Apologetics", and "Dr. Johnson as Apologist". Contains the most sophisticated refutation available anywhere of the arguments of David Hume and Anthony Flew against miracles in general and the resurrection of Christ in particular. Buy this book here.
J. W. Wartick. Book Review: Faith Founded on Fact by John Warwick Montgomery. Posted April 14, 2014.
"Faith Founded on Fact, put simply, is fantastic. In this review, I have only surveyed a small number of the areas I found to be of note throughout the work. JWM is witty and clever as usual, but he also raises an enormous number of points to reflect upon whether one agrees with his views or not. He offers a number of ways to approach apologetics from an evidentialist perspective, while also offering some devastating critiques of those who would allege that evidentialism fails. The book is a must read for anyone interested in apologetics."
Comment from Dr. Timothy McGrew: "The work of John Warwick Montgomery was a tremendous formative influence on my conception of the rational defense of Christianity, and this book was one of my earliest exposures to the evidentialist tradition. Though I have a few quibbles with him on particular points, I am persuaded that he is dead right about the existence of neutral evidence, and I have no more patience for foggy quasi-relativist double-talk in matters of faith and reason than he does."
Giant In Chains: China Today And Tomorrow, by John Warwick Montgomery. 204 pages. Originally published in German, this English version in now available in Canada. An introduction to the legacy of Imperial China, the influence of the three religions of China, the checkered history of the Christian church, the Chinese brand of Marxism that filled a spiritual vacuum, the human rights problem in China, and the challenges facing the church in China today. Shows how the Eastern religions have contributed to the evils of imperialism and Marxism in China, and argues that only the Christian Gospel offers a solution. Order form here.
God's Inerrant Word, by John Warwick Montgomery. Bethany House Publishers, September 1974. 288 pp. Buy this book here.
History, Law and Christianity, by John Warwick Montgomery. 131 pages. A re-issue of the classic History and Christianity expanded to include Dr. Montgomery's essay "Christianity Juridically Defended."
"For over three decades, Dr. John Warwick Montgomery has been a leading expert on questions about the historical reliability of the New Testament documents. This new edition is long overdue, and it is a joy to see it released."
- Dr. J.P. Moreland, Biola University
"I am one who knows what it is to doubt the fact of the resurrection of Jesus. It was Montgomery's writings that answered my doubts. This new edition is one of the best historical and legal defenses for the resurrection available."
- Ross Clifford, Principal, Morling Theological College;
former Lawyer and Barrister
Buy this book here.
How Do We Know There Is A God? And Other Questions Inappropriate in Polite Society, by John Warwick Montgomery. 91 pages. Buy this book here.
Human Rights and Human Dignity, by John Warwick Montgomery. 319 pages. "Tackles the tricky subject of human rights . . . with legal precision and theological acuity". (Dr. Harold O. J. Brown) "This book is vintage Montgomery . . . Anyone interested in the justification of human rights or the relationship between law and religion will find many ideas, arguments, and issues to challenge them". (Prof. Irving Hexham, University of Calgary) Contains a detailed argument for the truth of Christianity based on legal evidence (chapter 6). Buy this book here.
In Defense of Martin Luther, by John Warwick Montgomery. 175 pages. A fascinating collection of essays in which Montgomery shows how the Reformation led to a renaissance of learning and provided the foundation for modern science. Montgomery also directly takes on the challenge of secularists and others who allege that Luther's theology is logically consistent with Nazism. Recommended by Roland Bainton, author of Here I Stand. Buy this book here.
Jurisprudence: A Book of Readings, by John Warwick Montgomery. 720 pages. A casebook of selections from a wide variety of works relating law and theology, including a number of long out-of-print 17th and 18th century works defending Christian truth on the basis of legal method. Buy this book here.
The Jury Returns: A Juridical Defense of Christianity - An excerpt from Evidence for Faith Chapter 6, Part 2 here.
The Law Above the Law, by John Warwick Montgomery. 168 pages. Montgomery presents the case that modern people must begin once again to judge their behaviour, their laws and their legal systems on the basis of God's revelation of right and wrong. Included as the appendix is the complete text of The Testimony of the Evangelists by Professor Simon Greenleaf of Harvard Law School, the great 19th century authority on common-law evidence. See "Lessons from the Crucible" for details of an essay on "Witch Trial Theory and Practice" included in this book. Buy The Law Above the Lawhere.
Law & Gospel, by John Warwick Montgomery. Canadian Institute for Law, Theology & Public; 1st edition (December 1994). 50 pages. A monograph integrating the study of law with the study of Christian Theology. Starting with an examination of the three classical functions of the law, and the distinctions between "law" and "gospel", the study moves on to examine contracts, criminal law, real and personal property, laws of evidence, and civil and constitutional law. Buy this book here.
Law & Morality: Friends or Foes?, by John Warwick Montgomery. 32 pages. Dr. Montgomery's inaugural lecture on the occasion of his appointment as Professor of Law and Humanities at the University of Luton, England. A response to the Hart-Devlin debate, focusing on the questions: do law and morals have an essential interrelationship? If so, from whence can moral values justifiably be derived? Supplement to audiotape lectures. Order form here.
"Matthew 18 and Christian Conduct". Published in the Global Journal of Classical Theology, v. 12, n. 1. October 2014. "Matthew 18:15-17 is the locus classicus for handling conflicts among Christians. It is however, commonly honoured in the breach. And its application is woefully narrowed. In this brief study, we shall attempt to clarify the meaning and the ambit of Jesus? teaching on the responsibility of Christians in conflict situations."
Myth, Allegory & Gospel, by John Warwick Montgomery. 159 pages. A collection of essays on J. R. R. Tolkien, C. S. Lewis, G. K. Chesterton, and Charles Williams originally delivered as lectures at De Paul University, Chicago. Essayists include Edmund Fuller, Clyde Kilby, Russell Kirk, Chad Walsh, and the editor. Buy this book here.
Principalities and Powers: The World of the Occult and Demon Possession, by John Warwick Montgomery. Revised, 1975. 224 pages. A fascinating look at the paranormal, the supernatural, and the hidden things, including prophesy, divination, poltergeist, cabala, extra-sensory perception, fairies, ghosts, astrology, and other bizarre phenomena. Buy this book here.
The Repression Of Evangelism In Greece: European Litigation Vis-À-Vis A Closed Religious Establishment, by John Warwick Montgomery. 248 pages. Evangelism can lead to jail sentences in Greece, historically the "cradle of democracy." Lawyer-Theologian John Warwick Montgomery, who has successfully fought the Greek anti-proselytism law in the European Court of Human Rights, analyzes the Greek religious and civil rights paradox. Montgomery contends that religious establishment per se (a state church) is not the source of the problem to be found in Greece. The State and its established church should distinguish between "first generation" human rights (civil liberties) and "second generation" rights (economic and social benefits), carefully limiting the privileges of the establishment to the latter, while preserving an open marketplace for religious expression and practice on the part of other belief systems. A book for human rights advocates, missionaries, and all who support an open marketplace for religious expansion. Buy this book here.
Science, Theology and the Miraculous. An invitation presentation of the Lee College Symposium on the Theological Implications of Science (Cleveland, Tennessee) on March 18, 1977. From the Journal of the American Scientific Affiliation, v. 30, December 1978, pp. 145-153.
"Sensible Christianity" (Tape Series) by John Warwick Montgomery. Contemporary apologetics for the Christian layman designed to prepare you to be "ready to give an answer to every man who asks you a reason for the hope that is in you". (I Peter 3:15) Dr. Montgomery, in easy to understand terms, shows that Christianity is sensible and does have answers to the critical questions of life. Whether you listen to these cassettes alone or in a group study course, you will find that your knowledge and understanding of the Christian faith will be enhanced and your ability to communicate this knowledge improved. See here.
Shape of the Past, by John Warwick Montgomery. Bethany House Publishers, December 1975. 400 pages. Second edition. Buy this book here.
The Shaping of America, by John Warwick Montgomery. 255 pages. A critique of American ideas. The first half of the book deals with how America became the nation that it is; the second half suggests how it could become the nation that it should be. "Every Christian interested in the welfare of his or her country should read this excellent volume." (Robert G. Clouse, Department of History, Indiana State University)
Buy this book here.
Slaughter of the Innocents, by John Warwick Montgomery. Crossway Books, March 1981. 128 pages. The slaughtering of innocent children throughout history repeats Herod's terrifying act in the first century. Today this slaughter includes the unborn. Included are essays on "How to Decide the Birth Control Question", "The Christian View of the Fetus", the "American Medical Association Symposium: When Does Life Begin?", and "Abortion and the Law: Three Clarifications." A powerful defense of pro-life and traditional, biblical morality in the areas of sex and the family. Buy this book here.
"The Death of the Death of God," by John Warwick Montgomery and Thomas Altizer. Dr. Montgomery's historic decimation of death-of-god theology in debate with Thomas J.J. Altizer at Rockefeller Memorial Chapel, University of Chicago, February 24, 1967. Two audio tapes. For a transcript of this debate, see Dr. Montgomery's book The Suicide of Christian Theology.
The Suicide of Christian Theology, by John Warwick Montgomery. 528 pages. A compendium of 34 essays surveying the current theological scene. Includes The "Is God Dead?" Controversy (1966), and The Altizer-Montgomery Dialogue (1967) - a transcript of his famous debate at the University of Chicago with the death-of-God theologian Thomas J. J. Altizer. Buy this book here.
Tractatus Logico-Theologicus. Canadian Institute for Law, Theology & Public Policy
September 2002. 236 pages. Also here. "Written in the style of the early Wittgenstein, Tractatus Logico-Theologicus brings together and updates several decades of [Montgomery's] thought, as it provides a clear, articulate defense of the truth of Christianity, the existence of God, the inerrancy of Holy Scripture, and the fundamental importance of Christian revelation for addressing the human condition. Tractatus Logico-Theologicus is must reading for anyone who wants to know how to choose a religion intelligently."
- J.P. Moreland, Biola University.
"John Warwick Montgomery is one of the most important apologists for biblical Christianity in our time. This is his magnum opus. In it he refutes pluralism (the view that all religions are just different ways to God and none is a superior way of salvation) and postmodernism (the view that there is no discoverable truth that is both universal and absolute); he then sets out the evidence validating Christianity's truth claim."
- Paul D. Feinberg, Trinity Evangelical Divinity School.
Buy this book here.
Where is History Going?, by John Warwick Montgomery.
250 pages. A companion volume to Shape of the Past. A Christian response to secular philosophies of history. Karl Barth, Paul Tillich and Gordon Clark's philosophies of history are also critiqued. Includes History and Christianity (1964), Dr. Montgomery's reply to the lecture by Avrum Stroll of the University of British Columbia which contended that there is little if any reliable historical information about Jesus Christ. "Your two lectures [the basis for the book] did me good . . . I don't think it could be bettered" (C.S. Lewis). Buy this book here.
Audio presentation. Testing the Truth Claims of Christianity - Part 1 of 7. Dr. John Warwick Montgomery introduces a 7 part series discussing the truth claims of Christianity. The series follows the outline of Dr. Montgomery's book, Tractatus Logico-Theologicus, Revised Edition. In this episode, Dr. Montgomery discusses and answers the question, "Are all religions the same?" "Issues, Etc." podcast. Original Air Date: January 29, 2003.
Audio presentation. Testing the Truth Claims of Christianity - Part 7 of 7: ?How does the Christian message assures man of ultimate fulfillment?? Dr. Montgomery concludes the discussion with a admonition to speak the Gospel out of love, and then takes listener questions. "Issues, Etc." podcast. Original Air Date: March 12, 2003.
Audio presentation. Responding to Dr. Bart Ehrman's "Misquoting Jesus". Dr. John Warwick Montgomery responds to Dr. Bart Ehrman's contentions put forth in the book "Misquoting Jesus." Clips from the previous interview with Dr. Ehrman are played and Dr. Montgomery addresses them. "Issues, Etc." podcast. Original Air Date: January 31, 2006.
Audio presentation. The New Atheists. Dr. John Warrick Montgomery responds to the arguments made by Sam Harris, Richard Dawkins, et al. Dr. Montgomery turns the tables on the "New Atheists" by pointing out the illogic and irrational thinking in their arguments. "Issues, Etc." podcast. Original Air Date: February 5, 2007.
The Resurrection: A Symposium. Revell, 1896. "The Resurrection of Jesus Christ" and "The Fifteenth Chapter of First Corinthians." Also, related essays by Alexander MacLaren, C. H. Spurgeon, T. DeWitt Talmage and Canon Liddon.
A Full Inquiry Into the Subject of Suicide. To which are added two treatises on duelling and gaming. In two volumes. Part 1 of 2, Part 2 of 2. London: printed for J. F. and C. Rivington; J. Robson and W. Clarke; G. Nicol; and J. and T. Egerton; Fletcher, Prince and Cooke, Oxford; Merrills, Lunn, Cambridge; Simmons and Kirby, Canterbury; and Gillman, Rochester, 1790.
The Christian system vindicated: against the more popular forms of modern infidelity. London: Henry G. Bohn, 2nd edition, with additions. 1844. viii, 341 pp.; 18 cm. "Being the Hulsean prize for the year 1838, and the Norrisian prizes for the years 1837 and 1839" -- t.p.
General Literature. The Church of England Quarterly Review, vol. 9. London: Painter, 1840.
1. The Christian System Vindicated against the most Specious Sophisms of Modern Infidelity. In three Parts. By the Rev. Daniel Moore, B.A., of St. Catherine's Hall, Cambridge, and Assistant Curate of St. Bride, Fleet-street. London: Tyas. 1840.
2. An Introduction to the Evidences of the Divine Origin of the Christian
Religion. In Question and Answer. For the Use of Schools and Young Persons. London: Nisbet. 1840.
"THE first of these two works is one upon which we need say but little. It does well all that it professes to do; and it is, moreover, recommended by the highest of all possible testimonies, that, namely, of the University of Cambridge. The second is also good in its kind, and well adapted to the object it has in view."
The Divine Origin of the Holy Scriptures inferred from their adaptation to the circumstances of human nature: An Essay which obtained the Norrisian medal for 1839. Cambridge [England]: J. & J.J. Deighton, and T. Stevenson, 1840. [iv]-xii, -116 pp.; 22 cm.
The Christian Lawyer, or, The Claims of Christianity on the legal profession a discourse delivered at the funeral of Richard W. Flournoy, Esq., in the First Presbyterian Church, Richmond, Va., December 1st, 1857. Richmond: Macfarlane & Fergusson, 1858. 24 pp.; 22 cm.
Jonathan Mayhew. "The Snare Broken," a Thanksgiving Discourse, preached at the desire of the West Church in Boston, May 23, 1766. Occasioned by the Repeal of the Stamp-Act.
Samuel Langdon. "Government Corrupted by Vice," a sermon preached before the Honorable Congress of the Colony of Massachussets Bay, on the 31st of May, 1775.
Jacob Duche. "The Duty of Standing Fast in Our Spiritual and Temporal Liberties," a sermon preached in Christ Church, July 7th, 1775, before the first battalion of the city and liberties of Philadelphia.
William Smith. "A Sermon on the Present Situation of American Affairs," preached in Christ Church, Philadelphia, June 23rd, 1775.
John Joachim Zubly. "The Law of Liberty," a sermon on American Affairs, preached at the opening of the Provincial Congress of Georgia, 1775.
John Hurt. "The Love of Country," a sermon preached before the Virginia Troops in New Jersey. 1777.
William Gordon. "The Separation of the Jewish Tribes, after the death of Solomon, accounted for, and applied to the present day, in a sermon, delivered on July 4, 1777.
Nathaniel Whitaker. "An Antidote against Toryism, or the Curse of Meroz.
Oliver Hart. "Dancing Exploded, a sermon showing the unlawfulness, sinfulness, and bad consequences of Balls, Assemblies, and Dances in general;" delivered in Charleston, SC, 1778.
Samuel Stillman. "A Sermon preached before the Honorable Council, and Honorable House of Representatives of the State of Massachusetts Bay, May 26th, 1779."
David Tappan. "A Discourse delivered in the Third Parish in Newbury, Massachusetts, on the 1st of May, 1783, occasioned by the Ratification of the Treaty of Peace between Great Britain and the United States of America."
John Rodgers. "The Divine Goodness Displayed in the American Revolution," a sermon preached in New York, December 11th, 1783.
George Duffield. "A Sermon preached in the Third Presbyterian Church in the City of Philadelphia, on December 11, 1783, on the Restoration of Peace."
A Country carpenter's confession of faith; with a few plain remarks on The age of reason: in a letter from Will Chip, carpenter, in Somersetshire, to Thomas Pain, stay-maker, in Paris. London: Printed for F. and C. Rivington, 1794. 24 pp.
Moreland, J. P. (James Porter)
Modern Christian apologist. Read more about Moreland here.
[Excellent discours de la vie et de la mort. English.] A Discourse of life and death. . Written in French by Phil. Mornay. Done in English by the Countesse of Pembroke. At London: Printed [by R. Field] for William Ponsonby, 1600.  pp.
[Mystère d'iniquité. English]. The Mysterie of iniquitie: that is to say, The historie of the papacie: Declaring by what degrees it is now mounted to this height, and what oppositions the better sort from time to time haue made against it. Where is also defended the right of emperours, kings, and Christian princes, against the assertions of the cardinals, Bellarmine and Baronius. By Philip Morney, knight, Lord du Plessis, &c. Englished by Samson Lennard. London: Printed by Adam Islip, anno Dom. 1612. , 661,  pp.
[Excellent discours de la vie et de la mort. English]. A Pious and Christian consideration of life and death: and of all humane actions. Written originally in French by the famous Philip Morney Lord of Plessis. Translated into Latin by Arnoldus Freitagius. And now done into English by M. A. for the benefit of his countrymen. London: printed by J. L. for Luke Meredith, at the Star in St. Paul's Church-yard, 1699. 70,  pp.
[De la verité de la religion chrestienne. English.] A Worke concerning the trunesse of Christian religion: against, atheists, Epicures, Paynims, Iewes, Mahumetists, and other infidels. Written in French, by Philip of Mornay Lord of Plessie and Marly. Begunne to be translated into English, by that honourable and worthy gentleman, Sir Philip Sidney Knight, and at his request finished by Arthur Golding. Since which time, it hath been reuiewed, and is the fourth time published, and purged from sundry faults escaped heretofore, throrow ignorance, carelesnesse, or other corruption. London: Printed by George Purslowe, 1617. , 294, 305-605,  pp.
American statesman, delegate of Pennsylvania to the Constitutional Convention of 1787 and author of large sections of the Constitution of the United States. Read about Morris here, here, and here.
President John Adams on Morris, June 22, 1779. John Adams diary 29, 12 March - 31 July 1779: "In the Evening I fell into Chat with the Chevalier. He asked me, about Governeur Morris. I said it was his Christian Name -- that he was not Governor. The Chevalier said He had heard of him as an able Man. I said he was a young Man, chosen into Congress since I left it. That I had sat some Years with his Elder Brother in Congress. That Governeur was a Man of Wit, of and made pretty Verses -- but of a Character trs legere."
The Life of Gouverneur Morris, with selections from his correspondence and miscellaneous papers: detailing events in the American Revolution.
An Introduction to the History of the Development of Law. Washington, D.C.: J. Byrne, 1909. 315 pp.; 24 cm.
"This volume is the outgrowth of some lectures delivered several years ago before the post-graduate class of the University of Georgetown."--Pref./ Reproduction of original from Harvard Law School Library.
Review of Unitarianism. 2nd edition. Boston: Samuel T. Armstrong, 1815. 31 pp.; 24 cm. A review of the work with this title compiled by Thomas Belsham from documents and information communicated by James Freeman and William Wells, the third edition of which was issued in Boston in 1815. Extracted from the Panoplist, v. 11, no. 6.
Systematic Theology, History of Geology, Lecturer/Researcher, Answers in Genesis (USA). Read about Mortenson here.
British scriptural geologists in the first half of the nineteenth century.
New-England's memorial, or, A brief relation of the most memorable and remarkable passages of the Providence of God, manifested to the planters of New-England in America
with special reference to the first colony thereof, called New-Plymouth: As also a nomination of divers of the most eminent instruments deceased, both of church and common wealth, improved in the first beginning and after progress of sundry of the respective jurisdictions in those parts: in reference unto sundry exemplary passages of their lives, and the time of their death. Newport: Reprinted, and sold by S. Southwick., 1772. 224 pp. Note(s):
Dedicated to Thomas Prince, governor, and to the magistrates of New Plymouth./ "To the reader" signed: John Higginson, Thomas Thacher. March 26, 1669./ "A supplement to New-England's memorial. By another hand."--P. 206-208. Attributed to Josiah Cotton./ "Names of the subscribers for New-England's memorial."-- p. at end./ Published for the use and benefit of present and future generations. By Nathaniel Morton, secretary to the court for the jurisdiction of New-Plymouth. [Six lines of Scripture texts].
Motte, Mellish Irving
The Christian Patriot: A Sermon delivered at the South Congregational Church, Boston, July 5th, 1840. Cambridge: Folsom, Wells, and Thurston, 1840. 16 pp.; 25 cm. Text of sermon on Psalms CXLIV, 15. Introduction by David Barton.
British journalist. Learn more about Muggeridge here.
"It had pleased God to teach me something of the meaning of that precious truth: 'God so loved the world, that He gave His only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in Him should not perish, but have everlasting life.' I understood something of the reason why the Lord Jesus died on the cross, and suffered such agonies in the Garden of Gethsemane: even that thus, bearing the punishment due to us, we might not have to bear it ourselves. And, therefore, apprehending in some measure the love of Jesus for my soul, I was constrained to love Him in return. What all the exhortations and precepts of my father and others could not effect; what all my own resolutions could not bring about, even to renounce a life of sin and profligacy: I was enabled to do, constrained by the love of Jesus. The individual who desires to have his sins forgiven, must seek for it through the blood of Jesus. The individual who desires to get power over sin, must likewise seek it through the blood of Jesus."
"What a wonderful manual of everyday life is the Bible. Every day that I live I am more convinced of its everlasting truths. Especially do I have an opportunity of studying both the weaknesses and the virtues of men by observing them in trials at the courthouse. In the Bible are shown both the way of life and the way to life.
"Did you ever think how much of the enduring literature of the world has its base in the Word of God? The other night I was reading the story of the prodigal son, and when I reached the passage, 'When he came to himself,' I was reminded that President Wilson got his text for the book, 'When a Man Comes to Himself,' from that phrase.
"Shakespeare could never have written more than five of his plays, which touch every phase of human life, without the Bible as a groundwork, the five exceptions having mythology as their basis. Even erratic Lord Byron could not have produced the wonderful poem, 'Sennacherib,' without the assistance of the Bible, and neither could Victor Hugo have written 'Les Miserables'. Search through literature and you will find that none of the undying writers could have plumed his wings of thought without this matchless book."