Classic Works of Apologetics Online


Reconciling Scripture

Usually skeptics point out that the Bible contains errors, discrepancies and contradictions that cannot be resolved. These charges may involve logical fallacies such as argument from ignorance, argument from emotion, special pleading, wishful thinking and argument from personal incredulity. Those who take the time to study the verses-in-question and take context into consideration, can discover that alleged discrepancies are resolvable. This webpage is a "one-stop-shopping" site of scholars who have addressed this very topic. We invite sincere researchers to peruse this material carefully with the same standards as they would any historical document.


Anderson, Sir Robert
(1841-1918)

Scotland Yard official. Read about Anderson here.

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Ankerberg, John
(1945- )

President and founder of The Ankerberg Theological Research Institute. Read about Dr. Ankerberg here.

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Answering Islam
(Fl. 21st Century)

Apologetics ministry. Read about Answering Islam at their website.

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Answers in Genesis
(Fl. 21st Century)

Apologetics ministry. Read about Answers in Genesis here.

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Archer, Gleason L. (Leonard)
(1916-2004)

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Ballard, Peter
(1945- )

Australian apologist. Read about Ballard here.

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Barnes, Albert
(1798-1870)

Theologian. Learn more about Barnes here.

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Bennett, Edmund Hatch
(1824-1898)

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Benson, George
(1699-1762)

English minister. Learn more about Benson here. Disclaimer: Though Benson held to Socinian views, his work is often cited by orthodox writers, so he has been included here.

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Blomberg, Craig
(Fl. 21st Century)

Distinguished Professor of the New Testament at Denver Seminary in Colorado. Read about Professor Blomberg here.

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Boettner, Loraine
(1901-1990)

Theologian. Read more about Boettner here.

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Boice, James Montgomery
(1938-2000)

Pastor-teacher. Read more about Boice here.

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Brown, Michael L.
(Born 1955)

Modern Messianic Jewish apologist and host of radio talk show The Line of Fire. Read more about Brown here.

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Chalmers, Thomas
(1780-1847)

Mathematician and lecturer. Learn more about Chalmers here and here

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Chandler, Walter M. (Walter Marion)
(1867-1935)

Congressional representative. Read more about Chandler here.

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Christian Apologetics and Research Ministry
(1995- )

Matt Slick, founder. Read about Slick here. Read about Christian Apologetics and Research Ministry here.

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Clarke, Adam
(1760 or 1762-1832)

British Methodist theologian and biblical scholar. Read about Clarke here and here.

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Collins, Patrick
(Fl. 21st century)

Director of Ratio Christi, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL. 2010-Present. Read about Collins here.

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Copan, Paul
(Born 1962)

Professor and Pledger Family Chair of Philosophy and Ethics at Palm Beach Atlantic University in West Palm Beach, Florida. Read about Copan at his website.

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Craig, William Lane
(1949- )

American philosopher, theologian, New Testament historian, and Christian apologist. Read about Craig here and here.

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de Boer, Berend
(Born 1970.)

New Zealand software engineer. Read about de Boer at his website.

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Edwards, John
(1637-1716)

Church of England clergyman.

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Eliot, John
(1604-1690)

Clergyman. Read more about Eliot here.

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Fairbairn, Patrick
(1805-1874)

Professor of Divinity, Free Church College, Aberdeen. Read about Fairbairn here.

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Forster, Roger T. and Marston, V. Paul
(Fl. 21st century)

Apologists. Read about Forster and Marston here.

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Fortenberry, Bill
(fl. 21st Century)

Author from Birmingham, Alabama.

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Franks, James Clarke
(1793-1867)

Apologist.

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Gastrich, Jason
(Fl. 21st century)

Founder, Jesus Saves Ministries. Read more about Gastrich here.

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Gaussen, Louis
(1790-1863)

Swiss divine. Read more about Gaussen here and here

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Geikie, John Cunningham
(1824-1906)

Scottish clergyman. Read more about Geikie here.

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Geisler, Norman
(1932- )

Apologist. Learn more about Geisler here.

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Gib, Adam
(1714-1788)

Scottish religious leader. Read more about Gib here.

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Gill, John
(1697-1771)

Bible expositor. Read more about Gill here.

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Greenleaf, Simon
(1783-1853)

Royall Professor of Law, Harvard University, 1834. Doctor of Laws degree by Harvard in 1834, Doctor of Laws by Amherst in 1845, and again from the University of Alabama in 1852. H. W. Howard Knott, Dictionary of American Biography: "While engaged in tutorial work he prepared what was originally intended as a text-book on evidence, published in 1842 as A Treatise on the Law of Evidence. The profession at once hailed it as the ablest extant work on the subject, distinguished alike for its deep learning, clarity of style, and practical utility. He added a second volume in 1846, and a third in 1853. In its completed form it came to be regarded as the foremost American authority, and passed through numerous editions under successive editors." Learn more about Greenleaf here.
The Law Magazine: or Quarterly Review of Jurisprudence. London: W. Benning and Co., Law Booksellers, 1845. Events of the Quarter, p. 350. "It is no mean honor to America that her schools of jurisprudence have produced two of the first writers and best esteemed legal authorities of this century--the great and good man, Judge Story, and his worthy and eminent associate, Professor Greenleaf. Upon the existing Law of Evidence more light has shone from the New World than from all the lawyers who adorn the courts of Europe."
Disclaimer: Greenleaf is known to have been associated with Freemasonry and was author of A Brief Inquiry into the Origin and Principles of Free Masonry (1820).

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Hale, Sir Matthew
(1609-1676)

Lord Chief Justice of England. Read about Hale here.

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Hales, William
(1747-1831)

Geologist.

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Haley, John W.
(1834-1927)

Bible commentator/apologist.

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Hanegraaff, Hank
(Born 1950)

Author and Christian apologist. President, Christian Research Institute and host of the Bible Answer Man broadcast heard daily throughout the United States and Canada. Read more about Hanegraaff here.

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Hanko, Herman C.

Modern preacher. Read more about Hanko here.

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Harmer, Thomas
(1714-1788)

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Harris, Murray J.
(Fl. 20th Century)

Professor emeritus of New Testament exegesis and theology at Trinity Evangelical Divinity School in Deerfield, Illinois. Read more about Harris here.

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Harrison, Chris
(Fl. 21st Century)

© Chris Harrison

Assistant Professor of Human-Computer Interaction at Carnegie Mellon University, directing the Future Interfaces Group. Read more about Harrison here.

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Henry, Matthew
(1662-1714)

Biblical commentator. Read about Henry here and here.

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Hinrichs, Steve
(Fl. 21st century)

Apologist. Read more about Hinrichs here.

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Holcomb, Justin
(fl. 21st Century)

Episcopal priest serving as the Canon for Vocations in the Diocese of Central Florida. Read about Holcomb here.

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Holding, James Patrick
(Fl. 21st century)

President, Tekton Apologetics Ministries. Read more about Holding here.

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Hopkins, Mark
(1802-1877)

Educator. Learn about Hopkins here and here.

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Horne, Thomas Hartwell
(1780-1862)

Theologian. Read more about Horne here.

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Houdmann, S. Michael
(Fl. 21st century)

Founder, President, and CEO of Got Questions Ministries. Read more about Houdmann here.

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Hug, J. Leonhard (Johann Leonhard)
(1765-1846)

Theologian.

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Hunt, Michal Elizabeth
(1684-1768)

Catholic teacher. Author and director, www.AgapeBibleStudy.com. Read more about Hunt here.

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Jacobus, Melancthon Williams
(1816-1876)

Bible commentator. Learn more about Jacobus here.

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Jenks, William
(1778-1866)

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Jennings, David
(1691-1762)

Independent minister and tutor.

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Jenyns, Soame
(1704-1787)

English writer. Read more about Jenyns here.

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Jewel, John
(1522-1571)

Bishop of Salisbury.

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Keeling, Bartholomew
(c. 1766)

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Kingsley, Stephen
(1957- )

Pastor of the Reubens Community Church, Craigmont, Idaho. Read about Kingsley here.

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Kitchen, K. A. (Kenneth Anderson)
(1932- )

Old Testament scholar with specialty in Egypt. Read more about Kitchen here.

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Lardner, Nathaniel
(1684-1768)

English theologian. (TM): Nathaniel Lardner (1684-1768) was a dissenting minister who devoted his life to producing the apologetic masterpiece of the 18th century, the multi-volume Credibility of the Gospel History.
Lardner's christological views were not orthodox, though he stated publically that he was not an Arian. These issues, however, do not affect his historical work. Richard Watson included works by Lardner and several other dissenters in his Collection of Theological Tracts, (2nd edition 1791; see especially the Preface, p. xix).
Read more about Lardner here.

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Le Clerc, Jean
(1657-1736)

French theologian. Read more about Le Clerc here

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Licona, Michael
(Born 1961)

Author, editor. Ph.D. in New Testament (University of Pretoria). Associate professor in theology at Houston Baptist University and the president of Risen Jesus, Inc. Read more about Licona here.

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Lightfoot, John
(1602-1675)

English Biblical scholar. Read more about Lightfoot here.

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Lyttelton, George; 1st Baron Lyttelton
(1709-1773)

English statesman. Learn more about Lyttelton here and here.

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MacKnight, James
(1721-1800)

Biblical scholar. Read about MacKnight here.
"Agreeably to the plan of this sketch, any critical account of Dr. Macknight's works cannot with propriety be given here. It may only be observed, in general, that his reputation for sound criticism, extensive knowledge, and clear elucidation of the sacred writings, is rapidly increasing amongst Christians of every denomination; and he must be acknowledged to have been one of the most intelligent, judicious, and candid expositors of the Scriptures that ever appeared. Even during his own lifetime his diligence was rewarded by an ample portion of respectable fame. The "Harmony of the Gospels" has long been esteemed a work of standard excellence for the students of evangelical knowledge.--"Account of the Life and Character of James MacKnight, D. D." from A New Literal Translation from the Original Greek.

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Mammen, Neil
(Fl. 21st Century)

Technical consultant. System/Chip Architect and Technologist, Chip & New Product Specification and Architecture, Board/System/Product/FPGA Architecture & Design. Read about Mammen here. Tabs are currently dysfunctional with Firefox. Access with Internet Explorer.

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Marsh, Herbert
(1757-1830)

English divine. Read more about Marsh here

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McDowell, Josh
(1939- )

Modern Christian apologist. Learn more about McDowell here.

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McGrew, Lydia
(Fl. 21st Century)

Ph. D. in English Literature, Vanderbilt University, 1995. Learn about McGrew here and here. Curriculum Vitae. Blogs, Extra Thoughts and What's Wrong with the World.

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McGrew, Timothy J.
(Fl. 21st Century)

Professor and Chairman (2005-2009), Department of Philosophy, Western Michigan University. Curator, Library of Historical Apologetics. Learn about Dr. McGrew here, here, and here.

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Michaelis, Johann / John David
(1717-1791)

Biblical scholar. Read more about Michaelis here.

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Miller, Glenn
(Fl. 21st century)

IT business executive. Founder, Christian Thinktank. Read more about Miller here and here.

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Mimpriss, Robert
(1797-1875)

Sunday School worker.

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Montgomery, John Warwick
(1931- )

World-class Christian apologist, philosopher and legal expert. John Warwick Montgomery is Distinguished Research Professor of Philosophy and Christian Thought, Patrick Henry College (Virginia); and Emeritus Professor of Law and Humanities at the University of Luton (England). Professor Montgomery holds ten earned degrees, including the LL.B.; LL.M. from Cardiff University, Wales; the A.B. with distinction in Philosophy (Cornell University; Phi Beta Kappa); B.L.S. and M.A. (University of California at Berkeley); B.D. and S.T.M. (Wittenburg University, Springfield, Ohio); M. Phil. in Law (University of Essex, England); Ph.D. (Univeristy of Chicago), and the Doctorat d'Université from Strasbourg, France. He told Contemporary Authors, "My world-view was hammered out at university; there I became a Christian. ... Like the late C. S. Lewis (one of my greatest heroes), I was literally dragged kicking and screaming into the Kingdom by the weight of evidence for Christian truth."
Visit The John Warwick Montgomery website and read more about Montgomery here.

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Newcome, William
(1729-1800)

Church of Ireland archbishop of Armagh and theologian.

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Paley, William
(1743-1805)

English divine and philosopher. Learn more about Paley here and here.

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Perman, Matt
(Fl. 21st century)

Christian consultant. Read about Perman here.

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Pickering, Wilbur N.
(Fl. 20th century)

Christian missionary in Valparaiso, Brazil. He has a ThM and a PhD in Linguistics.

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Pilkington, Matthew
(c. 1700s)

Irish priest.

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Polyander, Johannes / Johannes Polyander van den Kerckhoven
(1568-1646)

Dutch Calvinist theologian, a Contra-Remonstrant. Read more about Polyander here.

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Prideaux, Humphrey
(1648-1724)

Dean of Norwich. Read more about Prideaux here.

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Rhodes, Ron
(Fl. 21st century)

Apologist. President of Reasoning from the Scriptures Ministries. Read about Rhodes here.

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Roberts, Alfred, M.A.
(19th century)

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Robinson, Edward
(1794-1863)

Biblical scholar. Read more about Robinson here and here.

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Robinson, Garet
(fl. 21st century)

Minister to Young Marrieds at Sugar Creek Baptist Church in Sugar Land, Texas. Read more about Robinson here. Website, Pro Ecclesia for the Church.

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Robinson, Rich
(Fl. 21st Century)

Senior researcher, Jews for Jesus. Read more about Robinson here and here.

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Rochford, James M.
(Fl. 21st Century)

Apologist. Read more about Rochford here. "There are various principles in harmonizing Bible difficulties?particularly the four gospels. These principles can help the interpreter to handle the vast majority of Bible difficulties."

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Scott, Thomas
(1747-1821)

Bible commentator. Read more about Scott here.

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Shamoun, Sam
(Fl. 21st century)

Apologist.

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Smith, Barry D.
(Fl. 21st century)

Associate Professor of Philosophy and Religious Studies at Atlantic Baptist University, Moncton, New Brunswick, Canada.

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Smith, Jay
(Fl. 21st century)

Missionary with Brethren In Christ World Missions, and affiliated with Hyde Park Christian Fellowship in London. Read about Smith here and here.

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Starkie, Thomas

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Stowe, C. E. (Calvin Ellis)
(1802-1886)

American educator.

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Strachan, Alexander
(fl. 19th century)

Reverend.

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Stuart, Moses
(1780-1852)

Biblical scholar. Read more about Stuart here, here and here.

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Talbot, Matthew
(c. 1800)

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Taylor, Isaac
(1787-1865)

Author. Read more about Taylor here.

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Taylor, Ross A.
(1955- )

Software/process engineer. Read more about Taylor here.

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"Theologigal"
(fl. 21st Century)

American apologist. Read about "Theologigal" here.

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Thorburn, Thomas James
(1858- )

Author.

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Tong, Andrew / C. Ang
(Fl. 21st Century)

New York University philosophy student. Read more about Tong here.

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Torrey, R. A. (Reuben Archer)
(1856-1928)

Evangelist and educator. Read about Torrey at CCEL and here.

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Townsend, George
(1788-1857)

Writer and Church of England clergyman.

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Triablogue
(Fl. 21st Century)

Protestant Christian apologists. Website here.

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Tuck, Robert
(1836-1911)

Author.

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Wallace, J. Warner
(Fl. 21st Century)

Los Angeles County Homicide Detective, author, former atheist. Read about Wallace here and at Stand to Reason.

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Warfield, B. B. (Benjamin Breckinridge)
(1851-1921)

Biblical scholar. Read more about Warfield here.

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Watson, Richard
(1737-1816)

English divine. (TM): Richard Watson (1737-1816), not to be confused with the Methodist theologian of the same name, was an Anglican theologian and scholar. He was a fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, was appointed a professor of chemistry and later of divinity at Trinity. From 1782 until his death, he served as the Bishop of Llandaff.

The Oxford biography says of him: "A student of mathematics before he turned his hand to chemistry, Watson came fresh to the study of religion on his appointment as regius professor of divinity in 1771. He then applied himself not to theology or patristics but to biblical study of the New Testament....In his six volumes of Theological Tracts (1785), which reprinted twenty-four extracts from nineteen writers for 'young persons of every denomination' (1.v), he included works by a number of dissenters, even some Unitarians, insisting that he 'did not at all consider the quarter from whence the matter was taken, but whether it was good, and suited to my purpose' (1.xix). His aim was to establish the truth of Christianity and defend his young readers 'from that contagion of Infidelity which is the disgrace of the age' (1.ix); his target was deists not dissenters...Twice in his career he came forward as a defender of the Christian faith: in 1776 his Apology for Christianity addressed Gibbon's sceptical account of the growth of Christianity in Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire; twenty years later his Apology for the Bible (1796) responded to the second part of Thomas Paine's deist Age of Reason, published in 1795. While his rejoinder to Gibbon was relaxed and courteous that to Paine was urgent and anxious; the debate was no longer an intellectual exercise but a crucial defence of the political and social order."

Read more about Watson here.

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West, Gilbert
(1703-1756)

Author.

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Williams, Arthur Lukyn
(1853-1943)

English New Testament scholar at Jesus College, Cambridge. Anglican clergyman. From 1878 until 1884 he was Principal of Moore Theological College in Sydney, New South Wales. Read about Williams here.

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Wilson, Douglas
(1953- )

Author. Read about Wilson here.

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Wilson, James P.
(1742-1798)

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Zeolla, Gary F.
(Fl. 21st century)

Powerlifter. Director of Darkness to Light Ministry. Read more about Zeolla here.

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