David Hume was the point man behind the current false Skeptical dichotomy between the natural and the supernatural. But it is less known that many wrote responses to him in his own day. This is an archive of those responses.

Adams, William

(TM): William Adams (1706?-1789) was a Fellow and Master of Pembroke College, Oxford, and a friend of the literary giant Samuel Johnson.

Alexander, Archibald

Assembly's Missionary Magazine

Also known as General Assembly's Missionary Magazine, or Missionary Magazine; or, Evangelical intelligencer. Edited by William P. Farrand.


Babbage, Charles

Mathematician and engineer. Read more about Babbage here and here.


Beattie, James

Poet. Read more about Beattie here.


Beckwith, Francis J. (Joseph)
(1960- )

Professor of Philosophy & Church-State Studies at Baylor University. In 2008-09 he will serve on the faculty of the University of Notre Dame as the Mary Ann Remick Senior Visiting Fellow in Notre Dame's Center for Ethics & Culture. Learn more about Beckwith here.


Bowen, Francis

Educator. Learn more about Bowen here.


Brackenridge, H. H. (Hugh Henry)

American writer, lawyer, judge, and justice of the Pennsylvania Supreme Court. Editor, The United States Magazine, 1779.

Bradford, Vincent L.


Brougham, Henry / Brougham and Vaux, Henry Brougham, Baron

Lord Chancellor of England.


Buffier, Claude

Campbell, Alexander

A founder of the Disciples of Christ or Churches of Christ.

Campbell, George

(TM): George Campbell was a Scottish Presbyterian theologian and professor and principal at Marischall College and a member of the Aberdeen Philosophical Society, of which the noted Scottich philosopher Thomas Reid was also a member.
Read more about Campbell here.

Chalmers, Thomas

Mathematician and lecturer. Learn more about Chalmers here and here


Chandler, Walter M. (Walter Marion)

Congressional representative. Read more about Chandler here.

Channing, William Ellery

Disclaimer: Channing was a Unitarian minister.

Christian Observer

The Christian Observer ... was founded at the Presbyterian publishing center of Philadelphia in 1813 as the Religious Remembrancer, "A Presbyterian Family Newspaper." Among its variety of religious articles were biographical sketches, revivals of religion, theological essays, missionary information, discourses on the preciousness of Christ and the denying of Christ, and essays on bible verses. The paper changed names several times, and in 1869 joined with the Free Christian Commonwealth in Louisville, Kentucky. Several of its contemporaries were swallowed up by its growth. In the early 1900's it was still a leading Presbyterian paper and contained stories and anecdotes, articles on such topics as "The Alcoholic problem," "Practical Suggestions for Church Work," "Saving Faith," "The Anti-opium Campaign in China," "Work Among the Negroes," and "The Pioneer Woman Physician." Cf. American Periodicals, 1741-1900.


The Christian Observer

Published in London, England. Conducted by members of the established Church of England. Merged with: Christian advocate and review to form: Christian observer and advocate.


Craig, William Lane

American philosopher, theologian, New Testament historian, and Christian apologist. Read about Craig here and here.

Douglas, John

Bishop of Salisbury and writer.

Earman, John
(1942- )

Professor in the History and Philosophy of Science department at the University of Pittsburgh. Learn about Earman here.

Ellys, Anthony

Bishop of St David's.

Fieser, James
(Fl. 21st Century)

Professor of philosophy at the University of Tennessee at Martin. Learn about Fieser here and here.


Geisler, Norman
(1932- )

Apologist. Learn more about Geisler here.

Godwin, John Hensley



Greenleaf, Simon

Royall Professor of Law, Harvard University, 1834. Doctor of Laws degree by Harvard in 1834, Doctor of Laws by Amherst in 1845, and again from the University of Alabama in 1852. H. W. Howard Knott, Dictionary of American Biography: "While engaged in tutorial work he prepared what was originally intended as a text-book on evidence, published in 1842 as A Treatise on the Law of Evidence. The profession at once hailed it as the ablest extant work on the subject, distinguished alike for its deep learning, clarity of style, and practical utility. He added a second volume in 1846, and a third in 1853. In its completed form it came to be regarded as the foremost American authority, and passed through numerous editions under successive editors." Learn more about Greenleaf here.

Gregory, Olinthus


Hall, Robert


Hey, John


Hill, George

Theologian and college head.


Hoffman, Paul K.

Holding, James Patrick

Hopkins, Mark

Educator. Learn about Hopkins here and here.


Horne, George

Bishop of Norwich.

Houston, Joseph
(fl. 20th century)

Hume, David

18th-century Scottish philosopher, economist, and historian.

Hunter, Christopher


Johnson, David
(1952- )

Kames, Henry Home, Lord

Judge and writer.


Kett, Henry

Oxford teacher and writer. Fellow of Trinity College, Oxford, and one of His Majesty's Preachers at Whitehall. Read more about Kett in the Dictionary of National Biography.


Larmer, Robert A. H.


Leland John

(TM): John Leland, an English dissenting (Presbyterian) minister who settled in Dublin, well deserves Hunt's description as “the indefatigable opponent of the whole generation of the deists.” Near the end of his life he began writing a series of letters to a friend regarding the history of the controversy, and the result was this massive work, the only tolerably complete contemporary survey of the vast literature on both sides.
Read more about Leland here


Lewis, Clive Staples (C. S.)

Oxford scholar. Apologist. Read about Lewis here.


Manning, Owen

County historian and Old English scholar.

Marsh, Herbert

English divine. Read more about Marsh here


McGrew, Timothy J.
(Fl. 21st Century)

Professor and Chairman (2005-2009), Department of Philosophy, Western Michigan University. Curator, Library of Historical Apologetics. Learn about Dr. McGrew here, here, and here.


McIlvane, Charles Pettit

Episcopalian bishop and president of Kenyon College.


Montgomery, John Warwick
(1931- )

World-class Christian apologist, philosopher and legal expert. John Warwick Montgomery is Distinguished Research Professor of Philosophy and Christian Thought, Patrick Henry College (Virginia); and Emeritus Professor of Law and Humanities at the University of Luton (England). Professor Montgomery holds ten earned degrees, including the LL.B.; LL.M. from Cardiff University, Wales; the A.B. with distinction in Philosophy (Cornell University; Phi Beta Kappa); B.L.S. and M.A. (University of California at Berkeley); B.D. and S.T.M. (Wittenburg University, Springfield, Ohio); M. Phil. in Law (University of Essex, England); Ph.D. (Univeristy of Chicago), and the Doctorat d'Université from Strasbourg, France. He told Contemporary Authors, "My world-view was hammered out at university; there I became a Christian. . . . Like the late C. S. Lewis (one of my greatest heroes), I was literally dragged kicking and screaming into the Kingdom by the weight of evidence for Christian truth."
Visit The John Warwick Montgomery website and read more about Montgomery here.


Moore, Charles


Paley, William

Christian apologist. Learn more about Paley here and here.


Palfrey, John Gorham

Price, Richard

Welsh moral and political philosopher. D.D. L.L.D. and fellow of the Royal Society of London, and of the Academy of Arts and Sciences in New-England. Learn about Price here.


Rutherforth, Thomas

Moral philosopher.

Shaw, Duncan

Church of Scotland minister.


Sherlock, Thomas

(TM): Thomas Sherlock was an Anglican Bishop whose apologetic writings, in the tradition of John Locke's Reasonableness of Christianity, focus on the evidence for miracles and the use and intent of prophecy.
Learn more about Sherlock here and here


Skelton, Philip

Church of Ireland clergyman.


Smith, Samuel Stanhope

Clergyman and college president.


Starkie, Thomas

Barrister and jurist.

Stona, Thomas
(Fl. 18th century)

Sumner, John Bird

Archbishop of Canterbury, the eldest son of the Revd Robert Sumner (1748-1802) and Hannah Bird (1756/7-1846), and brother of Charles Richard Sumner (1790-1874), bishop of Winchester.

Swediaur, Francois / Franz

Tagart, Edward

Disclaimer: Unitarian minister.

Thayer, Thomas Baldwin

Theological Magazine

Vol. 1, no. 1 (July/Aug. 1795)-v. 3, no. 6 (Dec. 1798/Jan.-Feb. 1799) [S.l. : s.n.], 1796-1799 ; (New York : Printed by T. & J. Swords, for Cornelius Davis)

Vernet, Jacob

Vince, Samuel

Mathematician and astronomer.

Warburton, William

Bishop of Gloucester and religious controversialist.

Wardlaw, Ralph

Scottish Presbyterian clergyman and writer. Slavery abolitionist. Read about Wardlaw here.


Whately, Richard

Anglican Archbishop of Dublin. Expert in logic and rhetoric. Read more about Whately here. Encyclopedia Britannica, 1911 edition: "While he was at St Alban Hall (1826) the work appeared which is perhaps most closely associated with his name - his treatise on Logic, originally contributed to the Encyclopaedia Metropolitana, in which he raised the study of the subject to a new level. It gave a great impetus to the study of logic throughout Great Britain."


Wilson, Daniel

Bishop of Calcutta. Read more about Wilson here.


Witherspoon, John

Reverend. Read more about Witherspoon here and here and here.


Young, J. R. (John Radford)



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