Classic Works of Apologetics - Science and the Bible Classic Works of Apologetics Online


Science and the Bible

Does science conflict with Scripture? For those willing to investigate, and study the topic, we present this repository of works from scholars and scientists of Christianity.

"I think there's a common assumption that you cannot both be a rigorous, show-me-the-data scientist and a person who believes in a personal God. I would like to say that from my perspective that assumption is incorrect; that, in fact, these two areas are entirely compatible and not only can exist within the same person, but can exist in a very synthetic way, and not in a compartmentalized way. I have no reason to see a discordance between what I know as a scientist who spends all day studying the genome of humans and what I believe as somebody who pays a lot of attention to what the Bible has taught me about God and about Jesus Christ. Those are entirely compatible views.

"Science is the way -- a powerful way, indeed -- to study the natural world. Science is not particularly effective -- in fact, it's rather ineffective -- in making commentary about the supernatural world. Both worlds, for me, are quite real and quite important. They are investigated in different ways. They coexist. They illuminate each other. And it is a great joy to be in a position of being able to bring both of those points of view to bear in any given day of the week. The notion that you have to sort of choose one or the other is a terrible myth that has been put forward, and which many people have bought into without really having a chance to examine the evidence. I came to my faith not, actually, in a circumstance where it was drummed into me as a child, which people tend to assume of any scientist who still has a personal faith in God; but actually by a series of compelling, logical arguments, many of them put forward by C. S. Lewis, that got me to the precipice of saying, 'Faith is actually plausible.' You still have to make that step. You will still have to decide for yourself whether to believe. But you can get very close to that by intellect alone."

--Dr. Francis S. Collins, former Director of the National Human Genome Research Institute at the National Institute of Health in Bethesda, Maryland.


The American Antiquarian and Oriental Journal
(1881-1914)

Edited by Stephen Denison Peet, 1831-1914. Chicago, Ill. : F.H. Reveell, Quarterly, Mar./May 1909-1914; Past: Quarterly, 1881-1883 Bimonthly, 1884-Jan./Feb. 1909. 34 v. : ill. ; 24 cm. Vol. 3, no. 2 (Jan. 1881)-v. 36, no. 1 (Jan. 1914). Formed by the union of: Oriental and biblical journal, and: American antiquarian (1878).

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Anderson, Sir Robert
(1841-1918)

Scotland Yard official. Read about Anderson here.

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Andree, Richard
(1835-1912)

German geographer, ethnographer, his main work is his Allgemeiner Handatlas (Leipzig, 1881, final edition 1937), one of the most comprehensive world atlases of all times. The early editions of the Times Atlas of the World 1895-1900) are based on this atlas.

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Andrews, Edgar, BSc, PhD, DSc, FIM, CEng, CPhys
(1932- )

English physicist and engineer. Emeritus Professor of Materials Science at the University of London. Read more about Andrews at his website.

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Books

Multimedia

Articles


Bacon, Roger
(1214?-1294)

Philosopher and Franciscan friar.

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Berkeley, George
(1685-1753)

Irish bishop. Learn more about Berkeley here.

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Biblical Archaeology Review
(1975- )

Washington, D.C. : Biblical Archaeology Society, Quarterly, 1975-1978; Bimonthly, 1979-. 26 cm Vol. 1, no. 1 (Mar. 1975)- . Issues for May/June-July/Aug. 1988 incorrectly numbered as vol. 15./ Vols. 1-5, 1975-1979. 1 v./ With v. 32, no. 2 (Mar./Apr. 2006), absorbed: Archaeology odyssey and BR (Washington, D.C.).

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Blaiklock, E. M.
(1903-1983)

Classics scholar.

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Blick, Edward Forrest
(1932- )

Engineer. Learn more about Blick at this entry in the scientists of Christian faith project.

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Blundeville, Thomas
(1522?-1606?)

Author and translator.

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Bowen, Francis
(1811-1890)

Educator. Learn more about Bowen here.

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Boyle, Robert
(1627-1691)

Chemist. Learn more about Boyle at his entry in the scientists of Christian faith project, and here

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Brand, Paul Wilson
(1914-2003 )

Physician. Pioneer in Reconstructive Surgery for Lepers. Learn more about Brand at his entry in the scientists of Christian faith project.

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Brander, Gustavus
(1720-1787)

English naturalist. Trustee of the British Museum. Learn about Brander here.

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Brougham, Henry / Brougham and Vaux, Henry Brougham, Baron
(1778-1868)

Lord Chancellor of England. Read about Lord Brougham here.

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Brown, Walt
(1937- )

Mechanical Engineer. Air Force Colonel. Learn more about Brown at his entry in the scientists of Christian faith project.

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Browne, Simon
(1680-1732)

Hymn-writer. Learn about Browne here, Singers and songs of the church: being biographical sketches of the hymn, by Josiah Miller.

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Bryan, William Jennings
(1860-1925)

American political leader. Read about Bryan here and here.

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Buckland, William
(1784-1856)

British vicar and paleontologist, and first Professor of Geology at Oxford University. Geologist. Named the Megalosaurus, before the term "dinosaur" was coined by Owen, and the first person to recognize fossilized dung. Read about Buckland here, here and here.

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Bugg, George
(1769-1851)

Evangelical Anglican pastor. Read about Bugg here.

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Bushnell, Horace
(1802-1876)

Clergyman. Read more about Bushnell here and here.

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Büttner, David Sigismundus Augustus,
(1724-1768)

Hungarian botanist. Büttner was appointed professor of medicine and botany in 1756 at the Collegium medico-chirurgicum Berlin. From 1760 to 1768, he was professor of botany and zoology at the University of Göttingen. Read about Büttner here.

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Carter, Robert W.
(Fl. 21st Century)

PhD. in marine biology. Read more about Dr. Carter here.

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Carver, George Washington
(1864?-1943)

Agricultural science pioneer. Read more about Carver here, and here.

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Catcott, Alexander
(1725 - 1779)

English geologist and theologian.

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Chadwick, Arthur V.
(Fl. 21st Century)

Modern scientist. Learn more about Chadwick at his entry in the scientists of Christian faith project.

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Chalmers, Thomas
(1780-1847)

Mathematician and lecturer. Learn more about Chalmers here and here

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The Christian Observer
(1802-1874)

Published in London, England. Conducted by members of the established Church of England. Merged with: Christian advocate and review to form: Christian observer and advocate.

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Clarke, Amos
(1779-1863)

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Clausen, Ben
(Fl. 21st Century)

Modern physicist. Learn more about Clausen at his entry in the scientists of Christian faith project.

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Cockburn, Patrick
(1678 - 1749)

Scottish divine. Learn about Cockburn in the Dictionary of National Biography, v. 11, by Leslie Stephen and Sidney Lee.

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Colman, Benjamin
(1673-1747)

Boston clergyman. Read more about Colman here.

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Colson, Charles W. / Chuck
(1931-2012)

Modern apologist. Read more about Colson here.

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Comstock, J. L. (John Lee)
(1789-1858)

American surgeon and writer. Learn about Comstock here.

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Cooke, Josiah Parsons
(1827-1894)

Atmospheric chemist. Learn more about Cooke here.

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Cuvier, Georges / Baron Georges Léopold Chrétien Frédéric Dagobert
(1769-1832)

French naturalist. Read about Cuvier here, here, here, hereand at Scientists of the Christian Faith.

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Dale, Thomas Nelson
(1845-1937)

Scientist and philosopher.

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Damadian, Raymond Vahan
(Born March 13, 1936)

American medical practitioner and inventor of the MRI scanner. Read more about Damadian here and in Claudia H. Deutsch, "Patent Fights Aplenty for M.R.I. Pioneer, New York Times, July 12, 1997.

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Dana, James Dwight
(1813-1895)

American geologist, minerologist, zoologist. Silliman Professor of Natural History and Geology at Yale College. Awarded the Wollaston Medal by the Geological Society of London in 1874, the Copley Medal by the Royal Society in 1877, and the Clarke Medal by the Royal Society of New South Wales in 1882. Read more about Dana here and here.

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Dawson, Sir John William
(1820-1899)

Canadian geologist, palaeontologist, author, educator, publisher, editor and opponent of Darwinism. Principal of McGill University. Read more about Dawson here, here and in the

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Descartes, Rene
(1596-1650)

Philosopher. Learn more about Descartes here and here

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Duhem, Pierre
(1861-1916)

French physicist, mathematician and philosopher of science. Read about Duhem here, here, and here.

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Edwards, William D.

Learn more about Edwards in the scientists of Christian faith feature.

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Eells, Myron
(1843-1907)

Pacific Northwest native, missionary, scholar, and collector.

Learn more about Eells here.

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Elliott, Mark

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Fairbairn, Patrick
(1805-1874)

Professor of Divinity, Free Church College, Aberdeen. Read about Fairbairn here.

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Fairholme, George
(1789-1846)

Geologist. Read about Fairholme here.

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Farrar, Adam Storey
(1826-1905)

Apologist.

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Fénelon, François de Salignac de La Mothe-
(1651-1715)

French diplomatist. Read more about Fenelon here.

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Fisher, George Park
(1827-1909)

American theologian. Read more about Fisher here and here

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Flynn, John
(1880-1951)

Australian Presbyterian minister and aviator who founded the Royal Flying Doctor Service, the world's first air ambulance. Read about Flynn here, here, here.

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Gambier, James
(1756-1833)

English admiral. Read more about Gambier here.

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Gish, Duane T.
(1921- )

Biochemist.

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Gosse, Philip Henry
(1810-1888)

Read about Gosse here and here.

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Gosselin, Paul
(Born 1957)

Paul Gosselin is an independent researcher specializing in ideologies, belief systems and religions. He holds a Masters in Social Anthropology and is the author of books both in French and English. He has done extensive research on postmodernism. He has lived in Nova Scotia, California, Vancouver Island and currently resides in Quebec (Canada).

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Grandius, Jacobus
(Fl. 17th century)

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Grimké, Thomas Smith
(1786-1834)

South Carolina judge and pacifist.

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Hannam, James
(fl. 21st century)

British author. "I am a historian of science specialising in the relationship between science and Christianity in the Medieval and Early Modern eras. I took my Masters (2003) from Birkbeck College, University of London and my PhD (2008) in the History and Philosophy of Science at Pembroke College, University of Cambridge. My reviews and articles have been published in the academic journals British Journal of the History of Science, Transactions of the Cambridge Bibliography Society, Science and Christian Belief and Perspectives on Science and Faith." Learn more about Hannam here.

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Harris, John
(1667?-1719)

English writer. Read about Harris here.

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Harrub, Brad

Anatomist/neurobiologist. Learn more about Harrub in our scientists of Christian faith feature.

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Horsley, Samuel
(1733-1806)

English divine. Read more about Horsley here.

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Howard, Philip
(1730-1810)

Roman Catholic geologist. Read more about Howard here.

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Hutchinson, Ian Horner
(1951- )

Plasma physicist, nuclear engineering educator. Head of Department of Nuclear Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts. Learn more about Hutchinson in the scientists of Christian faith feature.

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Hutchinson, John
(1674-1737)

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Hutton, Thomas, Captain, F.G.S.
(Fl. 19th Century)

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Jeeves, Malcolm
(1926- )

Emeritus Professor of Psychology at the University of St. Andrews, and was formerly President of The Royal Society of Edinburgh, Scotland's National Academy of Science and Letters. He was made Commander of the Order of the British Empire in 1992 for his services to science and to psychology in Britain. He established the Department of Psychology at St. Andrews University and his research interests centre around cognitive psychology and neuropsychology.

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Key, Thomas D. S.
(1928- )

Biologist. Learn more about Key here.

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Kitchen, K. A. (Kenneth Anderson)
(1932- )

Old Testament scholar with specialty in Egypt. Read more about Kitchen here.

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Lamb, Francis J.
(20th century)

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Lathrop, Joseph
(1731-1820)

Clergyman. Read about Lathrop here.

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Le Clerc, Jean
(1657-1736)

French theologian. Read more about Le Clerc here

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Lee, Luther
(1800-1889)

Clergyman. Learn more about Lee here.

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Lennox, John C. / John Carson
(Born 1945)

British mathematician, philosopher of science and Christian apologist who is Professor of Mathematics at the University of Oxford. Fellow in Mathematics and Philosophy of Science at Green Templeton College, Oxford University. Pastoral Advisor of Green Templeton College and Fellow of Wycliffe Hall. Learn more about Lennox here.

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Lenormant, François
(1837-1883)

French assyriologist and archaeologist. Learn more about Lenormant here, here, here.

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Lennard, E. Stan
(Fl. 21st Century)

Modern surgeon. Learn more about Lennard from his entry in this list of scientists of Christian faith

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Lord, Eleazar
(1788-1871)

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Macbrair, Robert Maxwell
(Fl. 19th century)

Wesleyan missionary in the Gambia. Translator.

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Marsh, Ebenezer Grant
(1777-1803)

Yale professor of languages.

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McMillen, S. I. (Sim I.)
(1898-1990)

Doctor. Graduate of University of Pennsylvania Medical School and the London School of Tropical Medicine, was a medical missionary in Africa for many years before he established a medical practice in New York. Read about McMillen here.

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Miller, W. R.
(Fl. 21st century)

Journalist. Historian.

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Mitchell, T. C.

Modern-day keeper of Western Asiatic Antiquities at the British Museum.

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Montgomery, John Warwick
(1931- )

World-class Christian apologist, philosopher and legal expert. John Warwick Montgomery is Distinguished Research Professor of Philosophy and Christian Thought, Patrick Henry College (Virginia); and Emeritus Professor of Law and Humanities at the University of Luton (England). Professor Montgomery holds ten earned degrees, including the LL.B.; LL.M. from Cardiff University, Wales; the A.B. with distinction in Philosophy (Cornell University; Phi Beta Kappa); B.L.S. and M.A. (University of California at Berkeley); B.D. and S.T.M. (Wittenburg University, Springfield, Ohio); M. Phil. in Law (University of Essex, England); Ph.D. (Univeristy of Chicago), and the Doctorat d'Université from Strasbourg, France. He told Contemporary Authors, "My world-view was hammered out at university; there I became a Christian. . . . Like the late C. S. Lewis (one of my greatest heroes), I was literally dragged kicking and screaming into the Kingdom by the weight of evidence for Christian truth."
Visit The John Warwick Montgomery website and read more about Montgomery here.

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Morris, Herbert W. (William)
(1818-1897)

Reverend.

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Mortenson, Terry
(1953-)

Systematic Theology, History of Geology, Lecturer/Researcher, Answers in Genesis (USA). Read about Mortenson here.

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Murray, John
(1786?-1851)

Read about Murray here.

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Nelson, Byron Christopher
(1894-1972)

Lutheran minister.

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Newton, Isaac
(1643-1727)

Scientist. Learn more about Newton from his entry in the list of scientists of Christian faith and here -- NOTE: There is some discussion about Newton having heretical beliefs; we leave it to the reader to decide -- one way or the other. See also here.

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North British Review
(1844-1871)

Edinburgh: W.P. Kennedy, Quarterly. Began with v. 1 in May 1844; ceased with v. 14 in Jan. 1871.; 53 v.: ill., maps; 23 cm.

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Oard, Michael
(d. 1746)

Meteorologist. Read about Oard here.

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Osterholm, Tim
(Fl. 21st Century)

BA in Business Administration & Human Resources Management.

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Owen, Charles
(d. 1746)

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Paley, William
(1743-1805)

English divine and philosopher. Learn more about Paley here and here.

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Parkinson, James
(1755-1824)

English physician and paleontologist. Learn more about Parkinson in his entry here, and here. Parkinson's Disease Society biography here.

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Pascal, Blaise
(1623-1662)

Philosopher and scientist. Learn more about Pascal in his entry here, and here

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Penn, Granville
(1761-1844)

Geologist. Grandson of William Penn of Pennsylvania. Read about Penn here and here and here.

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Penrose, Francis
(1718-1798)

Medical writer.

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Pitman, Sean D.
(Fl. 21st Century)

Dr. Sean D Pitman MD practices hematopathology and clinical pathology & anatomic pathology in Redding, California.

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Randolph, Thomas
(1701-1783)

College head.

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Reddie, James
(1773-1852)

Jurist.

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Rehwinkel, Alfred Martin
(1887 - )

Professor in Theology, Concordia Seminary St. Louis, MO.

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Rhind, William
(Fl. 1833-1867)

Geologist. Read more about Rhind here.

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Russell, Jeffrey Burton
(1934- )

American historian and religious studies scholar. Professor of History, the University of California, Santa Barbara. Read about Russell here. See also here.

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Sarfati, Jonathan D.
(1964- )

Australian Physical Chemist and Spectroscopist. Read about Dr. Sarfati here. See also Creation Ministries International.

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Schaefer, Henry
(1903-1991)

Chemist. Learn more about Schaefer from his entry in this list of scientists of Christian faith.

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Scheuchzer, Johann Jakob
(1667?-1719)

Swiss mathematician and physician. Read about Scheuchzer here.

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Silliman, Benjamin
(1779-1864)

Geologist. Read more about Silliman here.

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Smith, Caleb
(1723-1762)

Presbyterian minister.

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Smith, John Pye
(1774-1851)

Congregational theologian and Theological Tutor at Homerton College near Hackney, London. Read about Smith here.

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Snelling, Andrew
(Fl. 21st century)

Geologist, research scientist and technical editor. Read about Snelling here.

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Sproul, R. C.
(1939- )

Modern apologist.

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Steno, Nicolaus
(1638-1686)

Scientist who discovered the circulation of the blood in the human body and who discovered the law of crystallography known as "the law of constancy of interfacial angles." Read more about Steno here.

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Stroud, William
(1789-1858)

Physician. Read more about Stroud here.

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Stuart, Moses
(1780-1852)

Biblical scholar. Read more about Stuart here, here and here.

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Taylor, Isaac
(1787-1865)

Author. Read more about Taylor here.

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Thompson, Joseph Parrish
(1819-1879)

Pastor of The Broadway Tabernacle in New York City.

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Torrey, R. A. (Reuben Archer)
(1856-1928)

Evangelist and educator.

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Ure, Andrew
(1778-1857)

Physician. Chemist. Read about Ure here and here and here.

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Venn, John
(1834-1923)

Logician and philosopher. Read more about Venn here.

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Walker, James Barr
(1805-1887)

Clergyman. Read more about Walker here.

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Wallace, J. Warner
(Fl. 21st Century)

Los Angeles County Homicide Detective, author, former atheist. Read about Wallace at Stand to Reason.

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Whately, Richard
(1787-1863)

Anglican Archbishop of Dublin. Expert in logic and rhetoric. Read more about Whately here. Encyclopedia Britannica, 1911 edition: "While he was at St Alban Hall (1826) the work appeared which is perhaps most closely associated with his name - his treatise on Logic, originally contributed to the Encyclopaedia Metropolitana, in which he raised the study of the subject to a new level. It gave a great impetus to the study of logic throughout Great Britain."

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Whiston, William
(1667-1752)

English divine and mathematician. Read more about Whiston here and here

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Wilson, Thomas
(1747-1813)

Schoolmaster.

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Williams, John
(ca. 1730-1795)

Mineral surveyor.

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Wise, Kurt P.
(Born 1959)

Director of Creation Research Center at Truett-McConnell College. He has a PhD in geology from Harvard University. Read about Wise here.

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Wiseman, Jennifer J.
(Fl. 21st Century)

Astronomer and author. Senior astrophysicist at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, where she serves as the Senior Project Scientist for the Hubble Space Telescope. Read about Wiseman here, here, and here.

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Woodward, John
(1665-1728)

English naturalist and geologist. Read about Woodward here.

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Worthington, William
(1703-1778)

Church of England clergyman and religious writer.

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Wright, G. Frederick (George Frederick)
(1838-1921)

Geologist. Theistic evolutionist. Read about Wright here.

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Young, George
(1777-1848)

Geologist. Read about Young here.

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Young, J. R. (John Radford)
(1799-1885)

Mathematician.

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